SCRIPTA II The theme this time is Alexander the Great whom I admire very much. He lived fast and died young, which is very rock and roll.


Megos Alexandros "the epitome of youthful, world-conquering, terrifying glamour."...

Alexander is an enigma:Alexander How great?

alexander great to whom?

check this out ( it's not exactly a confidence builder)..

."The Death of Alexander" by Robert Lowell:

No one was like him. Terrible were his crimes—

but if you wish to blackguard the Great King,

think how mean, obscure and dull you are,

your labors lowly and your merits less...


It kind of puts things in perspective, no?

Anyway...

Alexandria

10/1

ex gratia: out of thanks/grace; i.e. not legally obligated

non sequitur: "it does not follow"; an illogical statement


consequence(sequor): that which follows; the result of some action

obsequious (sequor): too eager to help or obey someone important ; too eager to follow...hey, what is that brown stuff on your nose?

Phillip II of Macedonia: father of Alexander

According to the Greek historian Theopomus of Chios Europe had never seen a man like king Philip of Macedonia , and he called his history of the mid-fourth century BCE the Philippic History. Theopompus had a point. Not even his better known son Alexander has done so much to change the course of Greek history. Philip reorganized his kingdom, gave it access to the sea, expanded its power so that it could defeat the Achmaenid Empire ( aka the Persian Empire)and subdued the Greek city-states, which never regained their independence again. To achieve this, he modernized the Macedonian economy, improved the army, and concluded several marital alliances. The result was a superpower with one weakness: it was as strong as its king. When Philip's son Alexander died, the institutions were too weak, and Macedonia never recovered.Philip.jpg


Phillip_II_map,_macedonia.gif

Macedonia: ancient landscape and state, situated in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and northern Greece, best known because its king Alexander the Great (336-323) conquered the Persian Empire and inaugurated a new period in Greek history.

macedonia.jpg macedmap.gif



10/9

fiat: let it be done;

a command or act of will that creates something without or as if without further effort
Mr. Biehl has issued a fiat that tardy students not be allowed into class without a pass.

paterfamilias : the father of the family; head of household


paternity: fatherhood

posthumous(post+ humus=ground): born,happening, done, or published after someone's death ( after they are in the ground)

http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/patron?show=0&t=1326465477

Back to our conquering Alexander:

Vergina Vergina tombs : site in Northern Greece of the tombs of the Macedonian kings. What is believed to be the tomb of Phillip was uncovered just 36 years ago in 1977.Crown_of_philip.jpgCrown of Philip II

Can you imagine what a thrill that must have been?

Olympias: Mother of Alexander; She was one tough cookie. Her original name was Myrtle, but it was changed when her husband entered a wiining chariot at the Olympic games.

Olympias was the orphaned daughter of the king of Epirus, now modern Albania. According to Plutarch, she was descended from Aeacus, through Neoptolemus. Aeacus was the legendary king of Aegina and the grandfather of none other than Achilles.

The area from which Olympias came was considered barbaric, and her practice of Dionysian rituals involving the handling of snakes and so forth did little to convince Philip and other Macedonians otherwise.

She probably had fair skin, and was probably red- or auburn-haired, according to Renault. She was also known to be jealous and vindictive, and very protective of Alexander. She did not appreciate Philip's polygamy and wanted to see Alexander become heir to the throne. She would usually take Alexander's side in family disputes, and some writers even claim that she helped inspire Pausinia's plot to murder Philip. Immediately after his death, she had his latest wife, Cleopatra(aka Eurydice), and her infant son killed, which does sound a bit fishy.

Olympias and Alexander had deep feelings for each other, perhaps more substantial than normal mother-son connections. She seemed to have believed, and to have encouraged Alexander to believe that he was divine and she believed that there were portents from when he was conceived that confirmed her beliefs:

  • The night before the consummation of their marriage, Olympias dreamed that a thunderbolt fell upon her body, which kindled a great fire, whose divided flames dispersed themselves all about, and then were extinguished. And Philip, some time after he was married, dreamt that he sealed up his wife's body with a seal, whose impression, as be fancied, was the figure of a lion.

[Plutarch, Alexander 2]

A short time after Alexander's death, Olympias and Alexander's widow, Roxane,and his posthumous young son, Alexander IV were both murdered by Cassander, a one-time friend of Alexander.

http://wso.williams.edu/~junterek/

biography alexander

olympias and the boy

http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/patron?show=0&t=1326465477


10/7

affidavit = declaration upon oath; a formal sworn statement of fact ( ad + fidelis...faithful to the TRUTH)

cadit quaestio = the question falls; is a legal term used to indicate that a settlement to a dispute or issue has been reached, and is now
resolved

diffident: lacking confidence; shy

cadaver: one who has fallen, i.e. died; a dead body


national geographic alexander

Alexander and Bucephalus alexander and bucephalus link to storyalexander_horse.jpg

Bucephalus means "oxheaded". Alexander and Bucephalus fought in many battles together until the horse died at the ripe old age of 31 in what is now Pakistan, for a while the town in which he died was called Bucephala. Archeologists are looking for the animal's tomb to this day, and Afgani horsetraders will still try to sell you a horse claiming it is a descendant of Bucephalus.

http://www1.hollins.edu/faculty/saloweyca/horse/bucephalus.htm


Aristotle( yes, THE Aristotle): Greek philospher and tutor of Alexander the Great. He taught him the usual subjects, Greek,Latin, rhetoric, philosphy, literature, and encouraged in him a lifelong interest in science and medicine.



national geographic alexander


10/15


et alia+et al+ and others; used in listing people ( as opposed to et cetera+etc. listing things)

per diem: "by the day" The company gives its employyes a generous per diem allowance when they travel.


alienate: to make foreign; to make other; to exclude

quotidian: everyday; ordinary

Alexander and the Gordian knot:knots and physics

In Greek legend, the Gordian knot was the name given to an intricate knot used by Gordius to secure his oxcart. Gordius, who was a poor peasant, arrived with his wife in a public square of Phrygia in an oxcart. An oracle had informed the populace that their future king would come riding in a wagon. Seeing Gordius, the people made him king. In gratitude, Gordius dedicated his oxcart to Zeus, tying it up with a peculiar knot. An oracle foretold that he who untied the knot would rule all of Asia.

Many people tried to undo the knot but all to no avail.

In 333 B.C. Alexander the Great had invaded Asia Minor and arrived in the central mountains at the town of Gordium; he was 23. Undefeated, but without a decisive victory either, he was in need of an omen to prove to his troops and his enemies that the outcome of his mission - to conquer the known world - was possible.

In Gordium, by the Temple of the Zeus Basilica, was the ox cart, which had been put there by the King of Phrygia over 100 years before. The staves of the cart were tied together in a complex knot with the ends tucked away inside.

Having arrived at Gordium it was inconceivable that the young, impetuous King would not tackle the legendary "Gordian Knot".

Alexander climbed the hill and approached the cart as a crowd of curious Macedonians and Phrygians gathered around. They watched intently as Alexander struggled with the knot and became frustrated.

Alexander, stepping back, called out, "What does it matter how I loose it?" With that, he drew his sword, and in one powerful stroke severed the knot.

That night there was a huge electrical storm, which the seers conveniently interpreted to mean the gods were pleased with the actions of this so-called Son of Zeus who had cut the Gordian knot. Alexander_cuts_the_Gordian_Knot.jpg

http://www.alexander-the-great.co.uk/gordian_knot.htm It all sounds very metaphorical to me. Alexander will get dominion of Asia, by the sword(i.e. conquest).

For our mathematically inclined friends, Dr. Devlin of Standford University has some interesting things to say about the legend of the Gordian knot. Dr. Devlin and the Gordoan Knot .

Hephaestion: what do the ancients say? what do the scholars say?


What does Hollywood say?

Hephaestion was a Macedonian nobleman, closest friend and alledged lover of Alexander the Great.

Born in Pella, the capital of Macedonian, Hephaestion was educated at the court of King Philip and became a childhood friend of Alexander. It was commonplace in this era for men to have male lovers although Alexander's mother Olympias was very jealous of his relationship with Hephaestion. The envy of all the court officials made Hephaestion an isolated man, dependent on and totally loyal to Alexander.

Hephaestion accompanied Alexander the Great on many of his victorious battles, however, it is probable that Hephaestion was a better strategist and diplomat than commander.

Hephaestion was Alexander's best man when he married Roxane, his first wife. Hephaestion later married a Persian princess, Drypetis.

In 324B.C. Hephaestion fell ill after a drinking party and died. Alexander was shocked and grieved bitterly for Hephaestion, the person who had been his closest friend and confidant. In fact, he is said to have been so distraught that he would not leave the body for the entire day, having to be dragged away finally, had the doctor tending to Hepheastion executed, had the local shrine to Asclepius( son of Apollo, god of medicine) razed to the ground and he also cut his own hair, a la Achilles and Patroclus, in a public display of mourning. He had Hephaestion cremated and buried in Babylon and was still planning monuments and things like that when he died 8 months later.

http://www.alexander-the-great.co.uk/hephaestion.htm
francesco-de-mura-sisygambis-the-wife-of-darius-mistaking-haephestion-for-alexander-the-great.jpg Franco de Muro Sisgambis, the wife of Darius, Mistaking Hephaestion for Alexander

bbc discovery Hephaestion's Tomb ( maybe)hephaestions tomb.jpg


tomb.jpg
Possibly Hephaestion's Tomb

10/21

in limine = at the threshold; a request at the beginning of a trial to the judge outside the presence of the jury
A frequent use is at a pre-trial hearing or during an actual trial, requesting that the judge rule that certain testimony regarding evidence or information may be included or excluded. The motion is always discussed outside the presence of the jury and is always decided by a judge. The reasons for the motions are wide and varied, but probably the most frequent use of the motion in limine in a criminal trial is to shield the jury from information concerning the defendant that could possibly be unfairly prejudicial to him if heard at trial.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motion_in_limine



mala fide: in bad faith;
The fraudulent deception of another person; the intentional or malicious refusal to perform some duty or contractual obligation.


http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/mala+fide

malevolent: ill wishing
subliminal ( thanks, Jenna!): under the threshold of one's conscienceness


The Persian Empire:aka The Achaemenid Empire ( 550–330 BC), or First Persian Empire was an empire in Western and Central Asia, founded in the 6th century BCE by Cyrus the Great. The dynasty draws its name from king Achaemenes, who ruled Persis between 705 BCE and 675 BCE. The empire expanded to eventually rule over significant portions of the ancient world which at around 500 BCE stretched from the Indus Valley in the east, to Thrace and Macedon on the northeastern border of Greece, making it the biggest empire the world had yet seen. The Achaemenid Empire would control Egypt as well. It was ruled by a series of monarchs who unified its disparate tribes and nationalities by constructing a complex network of roads.
By the 600s BCE, the Persians (Parsa) had settled in the southwest Iranian plateau, bounded on the west by the Tigris River and on the south by the Persian Gulf; this region came to be heartland. It was from this region that Cyrus the Great would advance to defeat the Median, the Lydian, and the Babylonian Empires, to form the Achaemenid Empire.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achaemenid_Empire

Cyrus the Great
It was brought down by Alexander the Great ( suckers!!!!).

10/23
ad litem: "for the suit";
is a term used in law to refer to the appointment by a court of one party to act in a lawsuit on behalf of another party—for instance, a child or an incapacitated adult—who is deemed incapable of representing him or herself.
i.e.= id est : "it is" ; that is to say ; e.g Bring your resources to class which you may use on your test ( i.e. your notes, your drills and your text book).

litigious: full of lawsuits; always resorting to the courts to settle disputes; suing everybody all the time
litigious amercians
litigation: the process of taking legal action
The company was in talks to avoid litigation.




Alexander is known for his great military mind, so what were his tactics?
He used the phalanx and the sarissa.



The phalanx, in military science, is a tactical formation consisting of a block of heavily armed infantry standing shoulder to shoulder in files several ranks deep. Fully developed by the ancient Greeks, it survived in modified form into the gunpowder era and is viewed today as the beginning of European military development.
It was fisrt developed by the Sumerians.



Two thousand years later the Greeks refined the concept, using pikes 6 to 9 feet (2 to 3 m) long. Around 350 bc, Philip II of Macedon introduced the sarissa, a pike 13 to 21 feet (4 to 6.5 m) long that gave the Macedonian infantry an extra reach before the pike blades of the opposing Greeks could reach them. These close formations of men marched or ran toward their opponents bristling with spear points, which they then thrust into the enemy’s line. Alexander the Great used sarissa-equipped infantry to conquer his huge empire.


http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/454991/phalanx

phillip's phalanx





10/27
a mensa et thoro = divorce a mensa et thoro; divorce from bed-and-board; a de facto separation while remaining legally married


res ipsa loquitur = the thing itself speaks; the thing speaks for itself: Because of the obvious negligence of the defendant, the onus of proof would not be on the plaintiff


loquacious: full of speaking; talkative

eloquent: well spoken


battle of granicus

The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. Fought in Northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy, it was here that Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes.

Following the assassination of Alexander's father, Philip II of Macedon, and the subsequent consolidation of Alexander's Macedonian positions, he set out into Asia in 334 BC.
After the death of Phillip of Macedon, many cities and civilizations that he had conquered wanted to rebel because they wanted justice and their freedom back. These nations included the Illyrarians, Thractionians, and Greeks. Alexander noticed their desire to gain their independence and had to react quickly before they got their chance to do so. After controlling his conquered nations and getting everything set in Macedonia, Alexander started to prepare for his next major conquest: the invasion of Asia. Before the Battle of Granicus, Alexander appointed his father’s experienced general Antipater as regent in his absence from Macedonia. In the spring of 334 B.C, Alexander was the man in control of an army of 13,000 infantry and 5,100 cavalry. He and his army went on a 20-day march from Macedon to Hellespont.

According to Alexander's biographer Arrian, Alexander's army met the Persians on the third day of May from Abydos. Alexander's second-in-command,Parmenion suggested crossing the river upstream and attacking at dawn the next day, but Alexander attacked immediately. This tactic caught the Persians off guard. The Macedonian line was arrayed with the heavy Phalanxes in the middle, and cavalry on either side. Alexander was with the on the right flank. The Persians expected the main assault to come from Alexander's position and moved units from their center to that flank.
The battle started with a cavalry and light feint from the Macedonian left, from Parmenion's side of the battle line. The cavalry squadron was led by the officer Ptolemy, son of Philip. The Persians heavily reinforced that side, and the feint was driven back, but at that point, Alexander led the horse companions in their classic wedge-shaped charge, and smashed into the center of the Persian line. The Persians countercharged with a squadron of nobles on horse, and accounts show that in the melee, several high-ranking Persian nobles were killed by Alexander himself or his bodyguards, although Alexander was stunned by an axe-blow from a Persian nobleman named Spithridates. Before the noble could deal a death-blow, however, he was himself killed by Cleitus the Black. Alexander quickly recovered.Wedge-Formation-advantage.JPG
USMC 1918 wedge formationusmc wedge.jpg
The Greek cavalry then turned left and started rolling up the Persian cavalry, which was engaged with the left side of the Macedonian line after a general advance. A hole opened in the recently vacated place in the battle line, and the Macedonian infantry charged through to engage the poor-quality Persian infantry in the rear. At this, and with many of their leaders already dead, both flanks of the Persian cavalry retreated, seeing the of the center. The infantry also routed, many being cut down as they fled.
Total casualties for the Greeks were between 300 and 400. The Persians had roughly 1,000 cavalry and 3,000 infantry killed, mostly in the rout. The Greek mercenaries, under the command of Memnon of Rhodes, who fought for the Persians, were abandoned after the cavalry retreat. They attempted to broker a peace with Alexander but to no avail. As a result, after the battle Alexander ordered his infantry, who until this point had played no role in the battle, to slaughter the mercenaries to a man. 18,000 mercenaries were killed and 2,000 enslaved and sent back to Macedonia in chains for hard labour. It is believed that Alexander had a strong majority of the mercenaries killed in fear of plague. Also, Alexander sent 300 Persian armours to the Parthenon of Athens as an oblation to Athena, with this epigram: "Alexander, son of Philipp, and the Greeks, except of Lacedaemonians, from the barbarians who live in Asia". («Ἀλέξανδρος Φιλίππου καὶ οἱ Ἕλληνες, πλὴν Λακεδαιμονίων, ἀπὸ τῶν βαρβάρων τῶν τὴν Ἀσίαν κατοικούντων»-"Alexandros Philippou kai hoi Hellēnes plēn Lakedaimoniōn apo tōn barbarōn tōn tēn Asian katoikountōn").
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Granicus

battle of granicus





10/28
Prima Facie = First sight: Prima Facie evidence would be considered enough/sufficient to prove a case unless disproved or rejected; if no Prima Facie evidence can be shown or offered, there is no case to answer/continue
If you come home to find a broken window and all of your valuables gone, you have prima facie evidence of a burglary.


post hoc, ergo propter hoc: "after this therefore on account of this"; a logical fallacy.


fallacy:a wrong belief :a false or mistaken idea. It's a fallacy (to believe) that the Earth is flat.

primordial: existing at or from the beginning of time; that which existed FIRST



darius111.jpgDarius III ( ruh-roh)
darius and alexander.jpgThe whole mosaic


Darius III: The last Persian Great King of the Achaemenid dynasty( The Persians) - Darius III Codomannus - is remembered in history as the premier enemy who was beaten by Alexander. Darius had to abandon his commanding battlefield position twice, both at Issus and Gaugamela, under the pressure of the attacks by Alexander and his Macedonian Companion cavalry. With Darius the Achaemenid empire ceased to exist.

http://www.pothos.org/content/index.php?page=darius-iii

Nice going, Darius.





Battle of Issus:

The Battle of Issus was the first meeting between Alexander the Great of Macedon and Darius III of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Issus is a brilliant example how Alexander could think on his feet and react quickly to new threats as they presented themselves. The Issus campaign reveals how Alexander's army cohesion and leadership kept his men together, even when faced with disaster. Darius initially pulled off a energetic strategic move, then somehow lapsed into overconfidence, he bungled his army's preparedness and deployment, and then fled leading to his diverse army's ruination.

http://ancientbattles.com/Issus/Issus.htm

nice going, Darius.



battle of issus

Issus_Campaign_JJonas.jpg
issus_campaign.jpg

11/2
mare liberum = the free sea; the freedom of the sea; a body of navigable water to which all nations have unrestricted access.
mare clausum: a closed sea; a body of navigable water under the sole jurisdiction of a nation.
dictionary.com

seclusion: to close one's self off
recluse:a person who lives in seclusion or apart from society, often for religious meditation.



After the Battle of Issus:battle of tyre seige of tyre

Alexander heads down the coast of the Mediterranean, easily capturing towns along the way. His strategy was to capture the coastal towns and ports, thus neutralizing the superior Persian fleet. Most ports surrender easily in exchange for protection,except for Tyre ( in modern day Lebannon) , a walled island fortress which was beseiged for seven months before giving up. Alexander built a causeway from the mainland to the island on which he had towers built but ultimately the city was breached south of the causeway and Alexnder used catapults to widen the breach allowing his soldiers to storm the city. According to Arrian, Alexander was the second man through the wall. The city paid heavily for their resistance. Nearly 2000 men of fighting age were crucified on the beach, and 30,000 thousand people were sold into slavery.

tyreseige.gifSeige of Tyre

external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSDIWv35fEsDMuHn00xYjUuStNf06vM1cbKAw7YVOjmicJs_U-0-Q
,000 Tyria
http://balisunset.hubpages.com/hub/Battle-of-Tyre-332-BC

From there he headed to Egypt where he established Alexandria, which is not surprising because he established a lot of cities named Alexandria, but this one is particulary famous because it will be the home of Cleopatra and it was the home of the Great Library,"where 2,000 years ago the best minds of antiquity established the foundations for the systematic study of mathematics, physics, biology, astronomy, literature, geography and medicine. We build on those foundations still. The Library was constructed and supported by the Ptolemys, the Greek kings who inherited the Egyptian portion of the empire of Alexander the Great. From the time of its creation in the third century B.C. until its destruction seven centuries later, it was the brain and heart of the ancient world."Carl Sagan http://physics.weber.edu/carroll/honors/cosmos.


00 Tyrians to be crucified on the beaches as punishment for refusing to surrender. The majority of the male population was put to death and the rest were enslaved. The fall of Tyre was not the only fortress to fall along the eastern Mediterranean coast but was one of few to actively resist. The capture of Tyre reinforced the precedent that cities should surrender to Alexander to avoid destruction. This aided Alexander in neutralizing Persian control of the sea and allowed him to push further into Persia overland, culminating in the Battle of Gaugamela the following year.


ns to be crucified on the beaches as punishment for refusing to surrender. The majority of the male population was put to death and the rest were enslaved. The fall of Tyre was not the only fortress to fall along the eastern Mediterranean coast but was one of few to actively resist. The capture of Tyre reinforced the precedent that cities should surrender to Alexander to avoid destruction. This aided Alexander in neutralizing Persian control of the sea and allowed him to push further into Persia overland, culminating in the Battle of Gaugamela the following

11/6

.

pro se: " for one's self " Most people hire a lawyer to represent them in court, but you have the right to act pro se.




pro tempore :"for the time being" When the vice president is absent, the Senate elects a pro temp person to preside over the proceedings.




temporal (tempus, temporis): of or relating to time as opposed to eternity; of or relating to earthly life.




mahout : a driver or keeper of an elephant






Battle of Gaugemela:

Darius was prepared for battle having selected this spot to meet his enemy. After his defeat at Issus two years previously, Darius made sure that this battleground favored his army and its tactics - particularly the use of his feared scythe-wheeled chariots. The ground here was flat, perfect for chariots. Darius made it even flatter by ordering the terrain plowed and leveled. All was ready and on October 1, 331 BC the Persian army of possibly 200,000 (ancient texts exaggerate the number up to 1 million) faced off against Alexander's 35,000. The Macedonian leader immediately sized up the Persian's tactical advantage and countered by ordering his cavalry to shift to the right hoping to move his enemy away from its flat field. Darius took the bait ordering his troops to follow. Soon the Persians found themselves on rough, rock-strewn terrain. Seeing the thinning Persian line, Alexander led the charge that crashed through to the Persian rear. As at the battle of Issus, Darius fled, leaving the field and victory to Alexander. Alexander it is said lost about 400 soldiers to Darius 40,000.alexandermap.jpg

http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/pfalexander.htm

Battle of Gaugemela info

Battle of Gaugemela info II


SIGNIFICANCE/RESULTS OF THE BATTLE OF GAUGAMELA


1. Alexander proclaimed himself ‘King of Asia’ in front of the whole Macedonian army. This had huge propaganda value.

2. Having defeated Darius twice Alexander believed himself to be invincible and so did his men; boosted the morale of his soldiers.

3. Mazeus/the Babylonians surrendered Babylon to him where there were huge amounts of money and other treasures.Alexander Burning and Plundering Persepolis in Persia.jpgPersepolis being plundered by Alexander

Darius was assassinated by his own men a few months after the battle. Alexander turned the assassins over to a Persian court who executed them for treason.


uzbekistan

Roxane :her name Roshanak means "little star"- was the daughter of a Sogdian nobleman named Oxyartes (Vaxšuvadarva), who defended a mountain fortress against the invading army of Alexander the Great (327) in what is now Uzbekistan.When the fortress was captured, the sixteen year old woman was among the prisoners of war. It was obvious that Alexander could not control his conquests without doing concessions to the native population. He had to show respect to their customs if he wanted their loyalty. Marrying a local princess was a logical step. He did have a Persian mistress, Barsine, who had already bore him a son, but she was not considered suitable, as she was "too Greek". Roxane had two sons with Alexander, one of whom survives infancy, Alexander the IV, but neither he, nor his mother, nor his grandmother will survive long after Alexander himself. They are dead within 7-8 years after his death by the design of Cassander, one of Alexander's generals who was vying for power after his death.


http://www.livius.org/ro-rz/roxane/roxane.htm

Roxanna Achaemenid Princess.jpgRoxanna



11/9



hydaspes

Battle of Hydaspes( located in what is now Pakistan on the banks of the Jelum River): Alexander is not finished. He goes to India to confront the Indian leader, Porus who used charging elephants. Alexander's men had faced elephants at Gaugemela . It was during this battle that Bucephalus was injured. Porus was defeated but Alexander allowed him to continue to govern his own land.

http://www.awesomestories.com/flicks/alexander-great/victory-in-india
Info Battle of Hydraspes/Jehlum

Map_Battle_of_Jehlum.png


While archers and Agrainian javelin-men aimed at the mahouts themselves, the 3,000 veterans of the Shield Bearers swung axes at the elephants’ legs and daringly slashed at their trunks with curved scimitars Alexander knew the weak points of an elephant and had equipped his men accordingly. Robin Lane Fox

Mahout_on_an_elephant;_gouache_on_paper.jpgscimaitars.jpgScimitar
Mahout on an elephant

nihil novi sub sole

horrible histories expansion

After Jhelum, Alexander's men were done. They had endured quite enough, thank you very much, and were quite ready to return home. But, it was not an easy road. Alexander's army set out across the the Gedrosian desert, which was a disaster.

Here is an accoun t of the castastophic march.
gedrosian_desert.jpg . Map-alexander-empire.png

After returning to Persia, what is now Iraq, Hephaestion died, and Alexander died shortly thereafter in June 11, 323 BC in Babylon. It was quite a shock to his people ,and he left a huge gaping hole which resulted in a lot of fighting. No one knows for sure how Alexander died, although most people think it was illness, there is still suspicion he may have been poisoned by some disgruntled faction. Whatever the case, his empire was not prepared for his loss, and suffered horribly. Ptolemy, a friend and general of Alexander, who would take control of Egypt ( this is the ancestor of Cleopatra), had him enbalmed in the Egyptian fashion and placed in sarcphogus in Alexandria. It is believed to have been lost in Late Roman Empire riots in Egypt.

the rest of the story

"in the footsteps of alexander" death of

alexander's death and tomb



king-tut-sarcophagus.jpgKing Tut's sarcophagus

Sarcophagus_Endymion_Louvre_Ma1335.jpgRoman sarcophagus; Louvre