I am going to put information that is germane to our Pompeii unit here.
harcourt press map et alia
discovery pompeii


pompeii pictures

pompeii plans

bbc pompeii


perfer et obdura; dolor hic tibi proderit olim :Carry on and be tough; some day this pain will be useful to you.

repetitio est mater studiorum :Repetition is the mother of studies

durable: tough; able to endure

repetitive: repeating

On August 24, 79 Mount Vesuvius literally blew its top, spewing tons of molten ash, pumice and sulfuric gas miles into
external image pompeii2.jpg
Vesuvius erupts, 1944
the atmosphere. A "firestorm" of poisonous vapors and molten debris engulfed the surrounding area suffocating the inhabitants of the neighboring Roman resort cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae. Tons of falling debris filled the streets until nothing remained to be seen of the once thriving communities. The cities remained buried and undiscovered for almost 1700 years until excavation began in 1748. These excavations continue today and provide insight into life during the Roman Empir

Fortuna fortes iuvat: Fortune helps the brave
de fumo in flammam :Out of the smoke into the flame

fumigate:to expose to smoke or fumes, as in disinfecting or exterminating roaches, ants, etc.
inflammatory:(especially of speech or writing) arousing or intended to arouse angry or violent feelings.

An ancient voice reaches out from the past to tell us of the disaster. This voice belongs to Pliny the Younger whose letters describe his experience during the eruption while he was staying in the home of his Uncle, Pliny the Elder. The elder Pliny was an official in the Roman Court, in charge of the fleet in the area of the Bay of Naples and a naturalist. Pliny the Younger's letters were discovered in the 16th century.


Sean Burns: Just for you, we will do graffiti.


Translation: Celadus, the Thracian, makes the girls moan.
If I had to guess, I’d say Celadus wrote this.

Arphocras hic cum Drauca bene futuit denario.

Here Harpocras has had a good *&^% with Drauca for a denarius.

(C.I.L. IV, 2193; in the brothel) Context clues, children.

expire: breathe out ( the last breath ever)
inspire: breathe in

Graffiti and other archaeological evidence tell us a great deal about the lives and life expectancy of Roman gladiators in Pompeii

The House of the Gladiators.

Before 62 AD, this was the original gladiator’s barracks and training area for gladiators in Pompeii. A converted house, it consisted of a central peristyle surrounded by rooms. Graffiti on the pillars of the peristyle informs on the types of gladiators who appeared in Pompeii and how the gladiators themselves saw each other.

Besides the well-known fighters such as Thracians, Murmillos and Retinarii (net men) the House of the Gladiators trained essedarius (chariot fighters) and eques (cavalrymen). There are also various pieces of graffiti that refer to the popularity of certain gladiators with local women, suggesting that the gladiators at least saw themselves as sex symbols.


types of gladiators

pompeii graf.jpg

Translation: The boss isn’t worth a rat’s ass!
Who has not thought this very thing at one time or another?

Virgula to Teritus: You are a nasty boy.

indecent: not abiding by what is generally considered appropriate; obscene

ingrate: an ungrateful, miserable, greedy person

Thanks to Pompeii, we know a lot about working life in ancient Rome, particularly bakers and fullers:
Roman bakers and fullers, like other trades, were organized into collegia, or guilds for tradesmen. The guilds protected their members ' interests and served a religious and political role . Members gathered to celebrate festivals in honor of patron gods, such as Minerva, and to offer their support for particular election candidates. Much about their work comes from Pompeii , where thirty­ three bakeries and eleven fullonicae (fulleries) have been discovered. The bakeries were identified by mills and ovens, one found still containing the carbonized remains of eighty-eight loaves. The fulleries played the final role in cloth manufacture, fullconia working.pngand dyeing newly woven garments . They also acted as laundries, where wealthy Romans sent their clothes to be cleaned or redyed. Paintings on the walls of fullonicae depict the different stages of cleaning cloth.

The fulling industry was an important industry in Pompeii and its guildhall, the building of the Eumachia, was situated in a prominent place in the forum. Fulling consisted of cleaning raw wool or cloth in vats of urine( which was gathered by leaving bowls outside on the street for passersby to urinate in!!!!!), soda and fuller's earth. The workers trod the cloth in this mixture to clean it. It was then rinsed in a series of other vats and hung to dry. The cloth was combed, brushed and trimmed and white cloth was bleached by laying it on a cage over burning sulphur and brimstone. fullonica1.jpgFullconica of Stephanus
The final process was the pressing of the and this was done in a press at the entrance of the fullonica . And, finally, one has cloth to make clothes and anything else that requires cloth.
This is the atrium at the Fullonica of Stephanus in Pompeii, the impluvium was used to collect rain ( like the impluvium was used everywhere) but at fulleries the water was used in the fulling process.

This picture shows the washing vats which are situated at the back of the laundry. These three washing vats were interlinked and the water overflowed from one vat to the other. To the left of the three washing vats were treading bowls which were filled with urine, soda, and fuller's earth. .

The virtual tour"A Rescue Attempt" English to Latin
Pliny B "At Pompponianus' Villa"

Pliny C "Disaster Comes Closer"

Pliny D

History Teachers P



Translation: “The finances officer of the emperor Nero says this food is poison.”


“If only similar swindling would dupe you, innkeeper: you sell water, and drink the undiluted wine yourself.”

It's like an ancient YELP.

mendacious: lying ; liar liar pants on fire
imbibe: to drink ( alcohol, usually)

House of the Bakerbaking.jpg

This wall-painting depicts the sale of bread - loaves of bread are stacked on the shop counter, and the vendor can be seen handing them to customers. It is thought that the inhabitants of Pompeii bought their daily bread from bakeries rather than baked it themselves at home, since ovens rarely are found in the houses of the town.

The number of bakeries( pistrini) that have so far been excavated (33) tends to support this belief. Bakeries are identified by the presence of stone mills to grind grain, and large wood-burning ovens for baking.
Bread may have been bought directly from the bakery, but it is likely that it was also sold from temporary stalls set up at different parts of the town. Two graffiti discovered on the precinct wall of the Temple of Apollo are an indication of this. They read Verecunnus libarius hic and Pudens libarius, which can be roughly translated as 'Verecunnus and Pudens sell sacrificial bread here'.

Bakers were called pistores ( pounders...because before the mill, they had to use mortars) and were also organized into collegia.

C. Iulium Polybium aedilem oro vos faciatis. Panem bonum fert — “I beg you to make Gaius Julius Polybius aedile. He makes good bread."

M. Cerrinium Vatiam aedilem orant vos faciatis seribibi universi rogant scripsit Florus cum Fructo:: all the late night drinkers ask you make Marcus Cerrinius Vatia aedile; Florus wrote this with Fructus"

inexorable: unmoving; not able to be persuaded by prayers
adore: to pay divine favor to, to pray to, to worship

Temple Of Jupitertemple-of-jupiter-mt.jpg
Jupiter, the chief Roman god, was granted a place of honor in the city. The temple, located at the northern end of the Forum, was built in 150 BCE. It was built on a high foundation, with steps at the front entrance. The temple was twice as long as it was wide, was built in an Italic style. In the interior, the cella--the house of the god, accessible only by priests--featured three niches which held, respectively , statues of Jupiter, Minerva, and Juno who formed the Capitoline triad. These gods were symbols of Roman sovereignty, which explains the prominent location and architecture of the temple.

temple of isis pompeii.jpg

The cult of Isis was one of the most popular cults in Pompeii, and the temple itself manifests this popularity. Like the other temples, it was built on a raised platform. The temple's eastern orientation allowed for brilliant illumination by the rising sun. It is the best preserved temple in Pompeii, as can be seen in the photo. It was almost completely rebuilt after the 62 AD

earthquake the restoration was paid for in the name of a 6 year old boy. It was a small temple,with a mix of Roman, Egyptian, and Greek architectural features, and was highly decorated. The Temple of Isis, an Egyptian goddess, featured statues and images of other Egypian gods and goddesses. The worship of Isis was adopted by the nobility, and this wealthy background shows in the 'treasures' found within its walls. The cella, like the others, held images of the goddess. However, this cella also held sacred water from the Nile River, thought to have been important in rituals. There was also a small room at the rear of the temple, which is believed to have been used as a 'meeting-room' for followers of the cult; a marble table found there was probably used to serve sacred meals.


We have wet the bed. I admit, we were wrong, my host. If you ask ‘why?’ There was no chamber pot.

Very much that woman: I hope your hemorrhoids rub together so much that they hurt worse than when they every have before!

hospitable: able to offer hospitality;friendly and welcoming to strangers or guests

friction: rubbing together

The Lupanare (the bothel) in Pompeii

The Pompei’s city dwellers were pagans therefore, as all the pagans, they loved the pleasures of the flesh and they didn’t have any problems about showing their passion. Many houses of the ancient town of Pompei had a secret room where the slaves prostituted themselves. It was possible to buy a little company paying from two to eight assi (“assi” were the currency used in Pompei), it was a price affordable almost to everyone, if you consider that a portion of wine cost one asse. The “Lupanare”, so called because “lupa” in Latin means prostitute, it was the only building built in Pompei that had this purpose. It was the brothel of the city. It was composed of two floors, each one reserved to a kind of customers.The ground floor had five bed rooms, a corridor and a bathroom, it was made to the lower classes. The first floor was for the leisured classes: it had a different entrance and a balcony from which they could reach the rooms that were richly furnished. On the walls there are still visible little paintings representing lovers in different erotic positions: perfect for lazy lovers looking for inspiration. At the entrance of the Lupanare it was possible to buy condoms.

The House of the Faun

The owner of the “House of Faun” must have been one of the most envied personality of the city at that time. The findings of this house made the archaeologist think that it was an enormous villa, with rooms used for different activities. It hasn’t been possible to understand who was the owner of this beautiful house, that’s why it’s called the house of the Faun: the name comes from a little bronze statue representing a dancing faun that was found at the centre of one of the principal room.This house was a sort of modern apartment complex and inside there was a shopping centre too. The structure is composed of two big communicating areas, each one of these has its own entrance and they were connected by shops rented to the merchants. Besides the shops it has also a lot of rooms, but we don’t know if they were private or rented. The structure has been built with very modern construction techniques: for example under the plaster there are applied lead plates to protect the house from dampness. In Rome there weren’t houses so big and imposing as this one..thehouseofthefaun.jpg.1



si quis Venerem [deam] non credit, pupam meam aspiciat: If anyone does not believe in Venus, let him gaze at my doll( girlfriend)

Samius Cornelio suspend(e)re: Samius to Cornelius: Go hang yourself


“Phileros is a eunuch.”

“Oppius, you’re a clown, a thief, and a cheap crook.

Bullies abound.

eunuch: a man who has been castrated, especially (in the past) one employed to guard the women's living areas at an oriental court; an ineffectual person

furuncle: a boil

Thermopolium of Asellina:

The purpose of these commonly seen circular receptacles that once held containers of wine (called dolia) or hot meals in the ancient Roman's version of fast food outlets or pubs: the thermopolium or caupona. The number of holes correspond to the varieties of wine and food that were available for purchase. You could buy your wine hot or cold, chug it down it at the counter or at tables in an attached room if your pub/cafe was on the biggish side. Some of them even had our equivalent of banquet halls for rent.

Just as we do now, the citizens of Pompeii headed for neighborhood taverns to play games, talk business, argue politics or just hang out. Only the largest homes had kitchens so thermopolia fed Pompeians with no formal cooking facilities and travelers passing through. It's also believed that the noon meal was customarily eaten away from home so these would probably have been busy lunch counters - and pretty ones too if inlaid with colored scraps of marble.
fast food pompeii style

The Garden of the Fugitives is one of the most moving areas in Pompeii. Here, thirteen hollow spaces were found in the hardened layers of ash and volcanic debris. These spaces were filled with plaster and quickly became the statues of thirteen people--the largest number of victims found in one site. From their position in the ash, archaeologists were able to determine that they had died early in the morning of the second day of the eruption as they attempted to flee the city. They had no way of knowing that the eruption had entered its second and deadlier phase. Super hot toxic clouds of gas and debris blasted down the slopes of Vesuvius and overwhelmed Pompeii, killing everyone who had not yet left.

garden of the fugitives

ATIMETUS POSSEDI GRAVIDAM: Atimetus got me pregnant. TMI, kids, TMI.

NTIOCHUS PEPENDIT DE HIC CUM MARCUS AMICAM CITHERA. Antiochus hung out here with his girlfriend Cithera.
Better him than Atimetus

primigravida: a woman pregnant for the first time

pendulous : hanging ( heavily)

The "Thermae" were the city's public baths. There were relatively few private baths and these were limited to the most well-to-do families, given that the latter were the only ones who could afford to build rooms suited to the purpose.
The thermal bath buildings were divided into two sections: one reserved for women and one reserved for men. Each of these contained a series of rooms with different functions:
1) apodyterium or changing room
2) frigidarium or cold bath room
3) tepidarium or tepid bath room
4) calidarium or hot bath room.

The thermal baths included latrines and, in the most developed type, a pool and gymnasium. They were often furnished with open spaces and gardens.
The system of heating the rooms - which was fairly ingenious -worked by running heated water through the cavities in the wall.
The Thermae were not only buildings used for a function of public utility, but also played a very important social role in that they provided an important place for people to meet.

forum baths pompeii

the-forum-baths apodyterium.jpgapod forum baths close.jpg
Apodyterium Forum Baths

brazier Pompeii.jpgBrazier Tepidarium Pompeii

baths pompeii.jpg
Caladairum Forum Baths


The Macellum: the food market

casts at the macellum