juliuscaesar.jpg


2/26

Multos Marios in eo video (Sulla ) : I see many a Marius in him

Caesarem vehis, Caesaris fortunam: You carry Caesar and the fortune of Caesar

vehicle: that which carries something

fortutitous: full of luck; happening by chance

A politically adept and popular leader of the Roman Republic, Gaius Iulius Caesar significantly transformed what became known as the Roman Empire, by greatly expanding its geographic reach and establishing its imperial system.
While it has long been disputed, it's estimated that Julius Caesar was born in Rome on July 12 or 13, 100 BC. While he hailed from Roman aristocrats, his family was far from rich. When Caesar was 16 his father, Gaius Caesar, died. He remained close to his mother, Aurelia.
The Rome of Caesar's youth was unstable. An element of disorder ruled the Republic, which had discredited its nobility and seemed unable to handle its considerable size and influence.

3/1
Uxor Caesaris: The wife of Caesar
The associates of public figures must not even be suspected of wrongdoing (Julius Caesar is supposed to have said this when asked why he divorcedhis wife, Pompeia. Because she was suspected of some wrongdoing, he could not associate with her anymore.)
Jill: I don't think the mayor is trustworthy; his brother was charged with embezzlement.
Jane: But the charges were never proved.
Jill: That doesn'tmatter. Caesar's wife must be above suspicion.
When the newspapers reported the rumorthat the lieutenant governor had failed to pay his taxes, the governor forced him to resign,saying, "Caesar's wife must be above suspicion."bona dea scandal bonadea0oi.png
ab urbe condita ( a.u.c.) from the founding of the city ; one way the Romans marked time

uxorious: unduly influenced by one' wife; henpecked
abscond : to establish away ; to run off to avoid the law

At age 18 he married Cornelia, the daughter of a prominent member of the Popular faction; she later bore him his only legitimate child, a daughter, Julia. When the Optimate dictator, Sulla, was in power, he ordered Caesar to divorce her; when Caesar refused, Sulla proscribed him (listed him among those to be executed), and Caesar went into hiding. Caesar's influential friends and relatives eventually got him a
pardon.

3/3

Fere libenter homines id quod volunt credunt Men willingly believe what they wish.



Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres All Gaul is divided into three parts



bonhomie: a person who has a cheerful disposition and a pleasant and straightforward manner

credence:something giving a claim to belief or confidence


Who else is on the move in Roman politics?

Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus pompey-the-great.jpeg
Pompey raised an army and sided with Sulla, when the latter returned back from his campaigns in the east.

His determination and mercilessness shown when destroying his and Sulla's opponents in Siciliy and Africa he was nicknamed 'teenage butcher'.

though despite having shown loyalty to Sulla, he received no advancement or help of any kind from the dictator's will.

But Pompey soon overcame this setback. The fact that he commanded his own army, made him a force no one could afford to ignore. Having used his and proven his ability by putting down a rebellion, he then managed to secure, by means of intimidation, a command in Spain.

Had the commander Metellus Pius been making steady progress against the rebel general Sertorius and his forces, then Pompey, was left with a relatively easy job but received all the glory for himself.

An his return to Italy luck had him come across some of a band of fugitives of the defeated slave army of Spartacus. Once more Pompey was handed easy glory, as he now made claim to have brought an end to the slave war, despite it having evidently been Crassus who defeated Spartacus' main force in battle.
Pompey had held no government office at all by then. And yet once more the presence of his army in Italy was enough to persuade the senate to act in his favour. He was allowed to stand for the office of consul, despite his lack of administrative experience and his being under the age limit.

http://www.roman-empire.net/republic/pompey.html

After the Punic Wars and with the general expansion of the Empire, Italy was flooded with slaves.
the countryside became crowded with slaves: usually prisoners of war, but often simply bought from slave traders, who bought them from pirates. (A modern estimate: there were two million slaves on an Italian population of six million.) Strong captives were sometimes forced to fight as gladiators in the arena. The ancients really loved this bloody spectacle, something we could expect from the bellicose Romans (although gladiatorial contests were just as popular in the Greek world).
One of those was Spartacus, the leader of a rebellion of gladiators and slaves that escalated to a full-scale war in the years 73-70. We have two main sources: Plutarch of Chaeronea (46-c.122) describes this war in his Life of Crassus (text), and one generation later, Appian told the story in his History of the Civil wars (text). Both accounts describe more or less the same events in exactly the same sequence, and it is tempting to see the same source behind their stories, probably theHistories of Sallust or (less likely) Livy's History of Rome from its Foundation. It seems that Appian has abridged his account, whereas Plutarch has left out several stories about Spartacus' cruelty.
In 73, seventy-eight gladiators managed to escape from the fighting school of Gnaeus Lentulus Batiatus at Capua. According to Plutarch, they were only armed with choppers and spits, which they had found in a kitchen. However, they soon discovered a transport of gladiatorial weapons. From now on, they were heavily armed, and they occupied a mountain.
Appian informs us that this was the Vesuvius, and that the gladiators elected three leaders: Spartacus, Oenomaus and Crixus. Probably, they represented ethnic groups: a Thracian, a Greek, and a German. According to Plutarch,
  • Spartacus was a Thracian from the nomadic tribes and not only had a great spirit and great physical strength, but was, much more than one would expect from his condition, most intelligent and cultured, being more like a Greek than a Thracian.\



3/7

Vita Divi Iuli: the life of the divine Caesar ( Suetonius); book about the life of Caesar



mare nostrum : our sea; the Mediterranean



divine: of the gods
apotheosize: to make into a god.


The career of Pompeius Magnus continues:


Then in 67 BC he received a highly unusual command. It might well have been a commission by those politicians who finally wanted to see him fail and fall from grace. For the challenge he faced was daunting. His objective was to rid the Mediterranean of pirates. The pirate menace had been steadily increasing with the growth of trade and by that time had become utterly intolerable. Though suited to such a challenge, so too the resources he was granted were extraordinary: 250 shops, 100'000 soldiers, 4000 cavalry. Additional to this other countries with interests in Mediterranean trade provided him with further forces.

Had Pompey so far proved himself a capable commander, who at times well knew how to cover himself in glory won by others, then now, alas, he showed his own brilliance.

He organised the entire Mediterranean as well as the Black Sea into various sectors. Each such sector was handed to an individual commander with forces at his command. Then he gradually used his main forces to sweep through the sectors, crushing their forces and smashing their strongholds. In no more than three months Pompey managed the impossible. and the man, one known as the 'teenage butcher', had evidently begun to mellow a little. Had this campaign delivered 20'000 prisoners into his hands, then he spared most of them, giving them jobs in farming.
pomey and pirates.jpg



All Rome was impressed by this enormous achievement, realising they had a military genius in their midst.

In 66 BC, he was already given his next command. For over 20 years the King of Pontus, Mithridates, had been a cause of trouble in Asia Minor. Pompey's campaign was a total success. Yet as the kingdom of Pontus as dealt with, he continued on, into Cappadocia, Syria, even into Judaea.

Rome found its power, wealth and territory enormously increased.

Back in Rome all wondered what would happen on his return.


http://www.roman-empire.net/republic/pompey.html


3/9
muneribus, monumentis,congiariis, epulis multitudinem imperitam delenierat; suos praemiis, adversarios clementiae specie devinxerat.
He had conciliated the ignorant multitude by presents, by monuments, by largesses of food, and by banquets; he had bound his own party to him by rewards, his adversaries by the appearances of clemency. (Ccero, speaking about Caesar; 2nd Phillipics)

panem et circenses: bread and circuses


clemency: mercy
munificent: gift giving; generous


Pompey is riding high, and the senate is nervous. They feared that he would be another Sulla ( with the proscriptions and the bloodletting etc). He certainly had the power and the resources. However, Pompey was not turned that way. Rather than to attempt taking power by force, he joined up with two of Rome's most outstanding men of the day, Crassus and Caesar. They formed the FIRST TRIUMVIRATE.


First_Triumvirate_of_Caesar,_Crassius_and_Pompey.jpg

The First Triumvirate was an unofficial political alliance known as an Amitica, between three prominent Roman politicians (triumvirs) which included Julius Caesar, Pompey the Great and Marcus Licinius Crassus. "Pompey and Caesar now formed a pact, jointly swearing to oppose all legislation of which any one of them might disapprove. It lasted from approximately 59 BCE to Crassus' defeat by the Parthians in 53 BCE. The alliance was "not at heart a union of those with the same political ideals and ambitions", but
rather one where each man was seeking political advantage.

Crassus was the wealthiest man in Rome, and a very, very shrewd businessman.
Some of Crassus' wealth was acquired conventionally, through traffic in slaves, production from silver mines, and speculative real estate purchases. Crassus tended to specialize in deals involving proscribed citizens and especially and notoriously purchasing during fires or structural collapse of buildings. When buildings were burning, Crassus and his purposely-trained crew would show up, and Crassus would offer to purchase the presumably doomed property and perhaps neighboring endangered properties from their owners for speculatively low sums; if the purchase offer was accepted, Crassus would then use his army of some 500 slaves which he purchased due to their knowledge of architecture and building to put the fire out, sometimes before too much damage had been done: otherwise Crassus would use his crews to rebuild. If his purchase offers were not accepted, then Crassus would not engage in firefighting. Crassus's slaves employed the Roman method of firefighting—destroying the burning building to curtail the spread of the flames. Similar methods were used by Crassus in the common event of the collapse of the large Roman buildings known as insulae, which were notorious for their poor construction and unsafe conditions. Crassus was happy to cheaply construct new insulae using his slave labour force, in place of the old insulae which had collapsed and/or burned; however, he was known for his raising of rents rather than for his erection of improved residential structures.

3/10

puri sermonis amator: Lover of pure speech (said by Terentius about Caesar)

Malo esse primus quam Romae secundus: I prefer to be first man here than second man in Rome (Caesar)


We are told that, as he was crossing the Alps and passing by a barbarian village which had very few inhabitants and was a sorry sight, his companions asked with mirth and laughter, "Can it be that here too there are ambitious strifes for office, struggles for primacy, and mutual jealousies of powerful men?"

Whereupon Caesar said to them in all seriousness, "I would rather be first here than second at Rome."

In like manner we are told again that, in Spain, when he was at leisure and was reading from the history of Alexander, he was lost in thought for a long time, and then burst into tears.

His friends were astonished, and asked the reason for his tears. "Do you not think," said he, "it is matter for sorrow that while Alexander, at my age, was already king of so many peoples, I have as yet achieved no brilliant success?"
http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Plutarch/Lives/Caesar*.html


sermon: any serious speech, discourse, or exhortation, especially on a moral or religious issue

purity: freedom from anything that debases, pollutes, contaminates, etc.


One of the first things the the First Triumvirate did was to get Caesar elected consul. They were not without opposition and the boni ( optimates who opposed the Trimvirate; ultra conservative group) put forth their own candidate, Marcus Calpurnius Bibuluswho was elected Caesar's co counsul in the year 60 BC.

Caesar further strengthened his alliance with Pompey by giving his only child, his daughter, Julia in marriage to Pompey. Despite the difference in their ages, it seemed to be a happy marriage. As long as Julia was alive, she was able to smooth the feathers of both her husband and her father when need be.

3/15
Cave Idus Martis: Beware the Ides of March!
Et tu, Brute? You too, Brutus


Brutal: stupid and violent
Caveat: a warning

The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes. Rome's war against the Gallic tribes lasted from 58 BC to 50 BC and culminated in the decisive Battle of Alesia in 52 BC, in which a complete Roman victory resulted in the expansion of the Roman Republic over the whole of Gaul (mainly present-day France and Belgium). While militarily just as strong as the Romans, the internal division between the Gallic tribes guaranteed an easy victory for Caesar, and Vercingetorix's attempt to unite the Gauls against Roman invasion came too late. The wars paved the way for Julius Caesar to become the sole ruler of the Roman Republic.
Siege-alesia-vercingetorix-jules-cesar.jpg
Although Caesar portrayed this invasion as being a preemptive and defensive action, most historians agree that the wars were fought primarily to boost Caesar's political career and to pay off his massive debts. Still, Gaul was of significant military importance to the Romans, as they had been attacked several times by native tribes both indigenous to Gaul and farther to the north. Conquering Gaul allowed Rome to secure the natural border of the river Rhine. The Gallic Wars are described by Julius Caesar in his book Commentarii de Bello Gallico, which remains the most important historical source regarding the conflict.


1315684-Vercingétorix.jpg





3/17
Gallia est pacata: Gaul is subdued.

nulla causa: with no cause ( no justification for war)

nullifidian: one lacking faith (good one, Mrs. Marsh!!!!)

pacify: to make peaceful


Death of Crassus and Julia

Crassus was assigned command of an army to go and fight in Parthia ( Northern Iran)Parthia.png

It did not go well. Crassus had his fanny handed to him at the Battle of Carrhae. It was really a terrible defeat...Crassus trusted the wrong people, who fed him false information, he panicked when he realized his strategy was based upon false information and he completely freaked out when he found out his son, Publius, was in danger.


Crassus, unaware of his son's fate but realizing Publius was in danger, ordered a general advance. He was confronted with the sight of his son's head on a spear. The Parthian horse archers began to surround the Roman infantry, shooting at them from all directions, while the cataphracts mounted a series of charges that disorganized the Romans. The Parthian onslaught did not cease until nightfall. Crassus, deeply shaken by his son's death, ordered a retreat to the nearby town of Carrhae, leaving behind thousands of wounded, who were captured by the Parthians.
The next day, Surena sent a message to the Romans, offering to negotiate with Crassus. Surena proposed a truce, allowing the Roman army to return to Syria safely in exchange for Rome giving up all territory east of the Euphrates. Surena either sent an embassy to the Romans by the hills or went himself stating he wanted a peace conference to evacuate. Crassus was reluctant to meet with the Parthians, but his troops threatened to mutiny if he did not.At the meeting, a Parthian pulled at Crassus' reins, sparking violence. Crassus and his generals were killed. After his death, the Parthians allegedly poured molten gold down his throat, in a symbolic gesture mocking Crassus' renowned greed.The remaining Romans at Carrhae attempted to flee, but most were captured or killed. Roman casualties amounted to about 20,000 killed and 10,000 captured making the battle one of the costliest defeats in Roman history. Parthian casualties were minimal.

So, that's one down.

Then, poor Julia dies in childbirth. This leaves the First Triumvirate in a state pf disarray.

3/21
Veni, vidi, vici: I came, I saw, I conquered
Alea iacta est: The die is cast



revenue: that which come back; a return of money from property or possessions

abject:cast away; rejected




After Caesar spent 51 BC and the better part of 50 BC touring his newly conquered province of Gaul, political chaos was developing back in Rome. The optimates despised Caesar and his conquests (viewing much of his campaigning as unwarranted and illegal) and looked for every opportunity to strip him of his command.
They wanted to prosecute Caesar for a variety of reasons, including conducting an illegal war into Germania that the Senate never authorized. In fact, many argued that the protection of Cisalpine Gaul and Narbonensis didn't require the war that Caesar conducted in the larger part of Gaul in the first place. Prosecuting Caesar, whether the goal was death, exile or just a symbolic limitation of his power, would prevent his re-establishment of the populares agenda that he so masterfully manipulated previously. The years 50 and 49 BC were pivotal because during this time frame, Caesar's 'imperium' or safety from prosecution was set to expire. Caesar badly desired the ability to run for the Consulship in abstentia, thereby allowing him the safe transfer of protection from his Proconsular Imperium, granted by his command in Gaul, to that of the actual Consulship once again.

By this time, however, Pompey, likely the only man able to smooth things over, had clearly sided with the optimates. His jealously over Caesar's success and his ultimate goal of acceptance and power within the Senate took him ever further from the alliance with Caesar. The Lex Pompeia De Magistratibus that was passed while Pompey was Consul without colleague forced a candidate to be present in Rome to run for office, and of course, one couldn't legally bring their legions to Rome for protection.


Though Caesar held Rome in a precarious position by the strength of his army and the continuation of his political agenda, the Senate must hold some blame for pushing a known radical into a no-win situation. Caesar's options in these later developments were either to surrender willingly and face certain prosecution (though the outcome of such prosecution could certainly have gone either way as Caesar did have plenty of support.. and money), or go to war. Caesar clearly had ambition that exceeded the standard and faced with personal ruin and disgrace vs. the potential disaster that a civil war could cause the Roman state, Caesar obviously chose his own status above that of the eternal city. Despite this, he began to behave rather conciliatory, perhaps sensing the dire circumstances. After having essentially been declared war on by the Senate, he attempted to offer a compromise. First he asked to be allowed to maintain his governorship of Cisalpine Gaul and 2 legions, or Illyricum and only 1 legion, until such time as he could be elected Consul and enter Rome free from fear of prosecution.


On January 1, 49 BC and the days immediately following, the Senate rejected Caesar's final peace proposal and declared him hostis, or a public enemy. Caesar would have to give up his command completely or face war. The Tribunes attempted to block the measure through the people once again, but this time the Senate was entrenched. Much like Caesar, they too threw constitutionality to the wind and ignored the Tribunes using physical violence to stop their objections. Around the 10th of January 49 BC, word reached Caesar and he marched south with the 13th Legion from Ravenna towards the southern limit of Cisalpine Gaul's border. He likely arrived around January 11, and stopped on the northern bank of the small river border, the Rubicon.

Caesar seemed to contemplate the situation understandably for some time before making his final fateful decision. First testing the loyalty of his men, (he only had the 13th legion with him at this point) he gave a stirring speech pointing out the wrongs done to him (and the tribunes). With the clear support of his men Caesar added, "Even yet we may draw back; but once across that little bridge, and the whole issue is with the sword." He is then reported to have muttered the now infamous phrase, from the work of the poet Menander, "Alea iacta est", quoted as "Let the die be cast" or "Let the dice fly high." The Rubicon was crossed and Caesar officially invaded the legal border from his province into Italy, thus starting the civil war.


3/23

Hoc voluerunt: They wanted this ( Caesar after the Battle of Pharsalus)


Nihil est incertius vulgu: Nothing is more uncertain than the mob. (Cicero)

vulgarity: a base, crude act


http://www.unrv.com/fall-republic/caesars-civil-war.php


When Caesar crossed the Rubicon the Senate finally realized that they had made a terrible mistake. The mistake wasn't in letting the situation get that far, but in that they believed the Roman and Italian people would rally to defend the Republican system. What they failed to understand was that the people had little trust in the Senate and that Caesar had won them over through his popular agenda while in political office. Caesar's great propaganda campaign, his books "Bellum Gallicum (the Gallic Wars)" endeared the people even more to their almost mythical hero, and the Senate's cause in Italy was lost. Unable to levy armies, or develop a meaningful resistance, the Senate, and Pompey had little choice but to take their business out of Rome and into Greece. It was here, and further east, where Pompey held considerable sway, where the Senate hoped to raise armies and defeat Caesar.


This too, however, worked in Caesar's favor. Without the fear of bloodshed and damage to their homes in Italy, the people had little reason to support the Senate. Caesar marched throughout northern Italy accepting the capitulation of cities and garnering support with little difficulty. Pompey and the Republicans, meanwhile fled to Brundisium in the heel of Italy, where they hoped to secure the bulk of the transport vessels available in the region. The bulk of Pompey's forces were removed across the Adriatic to Dyrrhachium, along with the bulk of the Senate, but by early March of 49 BC, he still had nearly 2 full legions with him in Brundisium. Caesar approached quickly with 6 legions in an attempt to put an end to the resistance then and there. Attempting to box Pompey in, Caesar tried to negotiate peace, but Pompey delayed just long enough to make good his escape. Despite Caesar's attempts to block the harbor, the Republicans controlled the navy and Pompey escaped with his forces intact.



Battle of Pharsalus, (48 bc), the decisive engagement in the ancient Roman civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey. After Caesar had been defeated by Pompey at Dyrrhachium in 48 bc, both armies departed and again made contact somewhere near what is today Fársala, Greece. After several days of maneuvering, Pompey finally offered Caesar battle (August 9 by the uncorrected Roman calendar; June 6, Julian). Caesar had approximately 22,000 men; Pompey possibly had as many as 45,000.
Pompey massed the main force of his cavalry on his left infantry wing, hoping to outflank and overpower Caesar’s right wing, which was made up of a mixed band of cavalry and infantry. Caesar, however, foresaw the defeat of his right wing and had stationed behind it about 2,000 of his best legionnaires. In the ensuing battle, Pompey’s cavalry drove back Caesar’s cavalry, only to find itself faced by the advancing corps of select men using theirpila as stabbing spears rather than as javelins. Confused by the unusual infantry attack, Pompey’s cavalry turned and fled. The victorious legionnaires then began to outflank the left wing of Pompey’s infantry; at the same time, Caesar’s third division, which had been held in reserve, was ordered to attack. Pompey’s legions broke, and he himself fled to Larissa. About 24,000 of Pompey’s troops surrendered; the rest were dead or in flight. When Caesar, whose casualties were less than 250, surveyed the stricken field and Pompey’s dead supporters he exclaimed, “They would have it so” (“Hoc voluerunt”).
http://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-Pharsalus


The following day, the remaining Pompeian forces surrendered to Caesar, and the major part of the war was essentially over. Though some Senators fled to Africa or other Republican strongholds, many of Caesar's most vocal enemies were killed in the campaign. Pompey himself fled to Egypt, where his own horrible fate awaited him. Respected as the conqueror of the east, Pompey certainly felt comfortable heading into Egypt. While waiting off-shore to receive word from the boy-king, Ptolemy, Pompey was betrayed and assassinated. Stabbed in the back and decapitated, his body was burned on the shore and his head was brought to the king in order to present as a gift to Caesar. On July 24, 48 BC, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus was dead, just short of 58 years old. Despite Pompey's prestige in the east, the legend of Caesar must've been incredible. The man had conquered Gaul, crossed the Rhine, crossed into the farthest reaches of the known world in Britannia, and now utterly destroyed the Great Pompey with a far inferior force. When Caesar arrived in pursuit of Pompey, to certainly, by all accounts, grant him a pardon and welcome him back to Rome, Ptolemy presented Caesar with Pompey's head and his signet ring. Caesar, despite realizing Pompey's death made him the master of Rome, was overcome with grief. Turning away from the slave who presented Pompey's head, Caesar burst into tears at the sight of his rival, former friend, and son-in-law.

4/5
Divide et impera: divide and conquer
Iulia Pompeio nupsit:Julia married Pompey ( the things children will do to please their parents)

nuptials : marriage rites
imperative: must be done ( it is commanded); absolutely necessary


While in Egypt Caesar met, married and procreated with Cleopatra, the famous Egyptian queen.

The Cleopatra and Julius Caesar connection was formed when Julius Caesar fled to Egypt in pursuit of his enemy Pompey (McManus, 2001). Pompey has already been executed by the Egyptians. Julius Caesar, however, is not threatened by the same fate for he carried a much greater army force.

Julius Caesar is smitten by the woman delivered through a carpet; it is smuggled through Alexandria and is presented as a gift for the Roman leader (Grochowski, 2005). Cleopatra is then about 21 or 22 years old. Julius Caesar immediately recognized the potential of being lovers and allies.

The relationship could have been for love among any other. However, there are also political agenda behind the union. They are both leaders of influential and powerful nations. They have people under them, armies that could fight battles and win them. Both Rome and Egypt needs intellectual leaders.

Specifically, for Cleopatra’s side, she saw how a Caesar’s fleet could easily return her to power which he eventually did. Julius Caesar killed Cleopatra’s brother and husband, Ptolemy XIII when his army drove them away only to drown in the Nile. This was during the Alexandrian War. Julius Caesar made sure that Cleopatra is firm in her position as the leader of Egypt. He even left three legions to protect Cleopatra’s reign of power (McManus, 2001). He made sure that any insurgencies could be dismissed by his powerful army.

For Julius Caesar, the union will unite two great lands, Egypt and Rome. He has an ultimate dream that his children would someday rule this land. Julius Caesar could have also seen Alexandria as a strategic location for his battles and as time pass by, Egypt could also form a powerful army to help him in his conquests.

Cleopatra, though said to still be in love Julius Caesar, married her younger brother, Ptolemy XIV, to return her rule over Egypt. However, she was also married to Julius Caesar because Egypt allows polygamy. Cleopatra and Julius Caesar spent time in Alexandria. The Roman leader, however, is called for to lead his army to battles. He emerged victorious but returned to Rome instead.Julius Caesar and Cleopatra also had a son, Caesarion. Julius Caesar sent for his wife and son to be brought to Rome, with the great surprise of the Roman people. Out of respect for Julius Caesar, the people did not really give much attention to the fact that Julius Caesar married a foreign woman albeit having a Roman wife (McManus, 2001). The son was later executed for the fear that he can claim the land that is rightfully his father’s.
http://www.scholaradvisor.com/essay-examples/cleopatra-relationships/


4/7
Ignavi corem morte quidem animum trahunt, audaces autem illam non saltem advertit: The cowardly agonize about death; the bold don't even notice it.
advertisement: "noticing"; that which causes you to notice

Crime

44 B.C.

The Ides of March: Julius Caesar is murdered

Julius Caesar, the”dictator for life”of the Roman Empire, is murdered by his own senators at a meeting in a hall next to Pompey’s Theatre. The conspiracy against Caesar encompassed as many as sixty noblemen, including Caesar’s own protege, Marcus Brutus.
Caesar was scheduled to leave Rome to fight in a war on March 18 and had appointed loyal members of his army to rule the Empire in his absence. The Republican senators, already chafing at having to abide by Caesar’s decrees, were particularly angry about the prospect of taking orders from Caesar’s underlings. Cassius Longinus started the plot against the dictator, quickly getting his brother-in-law Marcus Brutus to join.
Caesar should have been well aware that many of the senators hated him, but he dismissed his security force not long before his assassination. Reportedly, Caesar was handed a warning note as he entered the senate meeting that day but did not read it. After he entered the hall, Caesar was surrounded by senators holding daggers. Servilius Casca struck the first blow, hitting Caesar in the neck and drawing blood. The other senators all joined in, stabbing him repeatedly about the head.
Marcus Brutus wounded Caesar in the groin and Caesar is said to have remarked in Greek, “You, too, my child?” In the aftermath of the assassination, Antony attempted to carry out Caesar’s legacy. However, Caesar’s will left Octavian in charge as his adopted son. Cassius and Brutus tried to rally a Republican army and Brutus even issued coins celebrating the assassination, known as the Ides of March. Octavian vowed revenge against the assassins, two years later Cassius and Brutus committed suicide after learning that Octavian’s forces had defeated theirs at the Battle of Philippa in Greece.
Antony took his armies east, where he hooked up with Caesar’s old paramour, Cleopatra. Octavian and Antony fought for many years until Octavian prevailed. In 30 B.C., Antony committed suicide. Octavian, later known as Augustus, ruled the Roman Empire for many more years.
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/the-ides-of-march-julius-caesar-is-murdered