9/26 and 9/29 Nova Scripta

ad nauseum : to the point of sickness
My sister keeps going on about her vacation ad nauseam. We get it: it was nice. Enough already!
ad absurdum: "to the point of absurdity" ( reductio ad absurdum) This is when one pushes an argument's premises or conclusions to their logical limits and showing how ridiculous the consequences would be, thus disproving or discrediting the argument.

The "absurd" conclusion of an ad absurdam argument can take a range of forms: Rocks have weight, otherwise we would see them floating in the air.
Society must have laws, otherwise there would be chaos and anarchy
.There is no smallest positive rational number, because if there were, it could be divided by two to get a smaller one.
The first example above argues that the denial of the assertion would have a ridiculous result, against the evidence of our senses. The second argues that the denial would have an untenable result: unacceptable, unworkable or unpleasant for society. The third is a mathematical proof, arguing that the denial of the assertion would result in a contradiction(there is a smallest rational number and yet there is a rational number smaller than it). "Reductio Ad Absurdum." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 25 Sept. 2012. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reductio_ad_absurdum. Easybib.com is my friend and can be yours too.

reductio ad absurdum from our philsopher friends
absurd: ridiculous, unreasonable or unsound ; an absurd request
nausea: stomach distress with distaste for food and an urge to vomit ; extreme disgust
Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <http://www.merriam-webster.com/>.
The theme this time will be the Olympians. This might take more than one Scripta set.
So who are they? Zeus(Jupiter), Hera (Juno), Ares(Mars), Artemis( Diana), Athena(Minerva), Demeter(Ceres), Dionysus(Bacchus), Hephaestus(Vulcan), Hermes(Mercury), Poseidon(Neptune), Hestia(Vesta),and Hades(Pluto)
Back to the family that puts the "fun" in dysfunctional:
titanomachy.jpg
titanomachy.jpg
Titanomachy So, Zeus has overthrown Cronus in a battle royale betweeen the Titans and his siblings ( Hera, Demeter, Poseidon, Hestia, and Hades). In a vast war called the Titanomachy, Zeus and his brothers and sisters, with the help of the Gigantes, Hecatonchires, and Cyclopes, overthrew Cronus and the other Titans. Afterwards, many of the Titans were confined in Tartarus. Some Titans were not banished to Tartarus. Atlas, Epimetheus, Menoetius, Oceanus and Prometheus are examples of Titans who were not imprisoned in Tartarus following the Titanomachy. Gaia bore the monster Typhon to claim revenge for the imprisoned Titans, though Zeus was victorious. Accounts of the fate of Cronus after the Titanomachy differ. In Homeric and other texts he is imprisoned with the other Titans in Tartarus. In Orphic poems, he is imprisoned for eternity in the cave of Nyx. Pindar describes his release from Tartarus, where he is made King of Elysium by Zeus. In another version[,the Titans released the Cyclopes from Tartarus, and Cronus was awarded the kingship among them, beginning a Golden Age. In the Aeneid by Virgil , Saturn (Cronus) escapes and ascends as king and lawgiver, following his defeat by his son Jupiter (Zeus). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4QNlfH7HvMc&feature=related
typhon.png
typhon.png
Typhon, Greek Stamp
typhon1.jpg
typhon1.jpg

.
typhoon.jpg
typhoon.jpg
Typhoon

9/28, 9/30, 10/3
alter ego: a second self
Dr. Jekyl and Mr. Hyde; Superman and Clarke Kent; Miley Cyrus and Hannah Montana
superman.jpg

per se: by itself;
Failing the class is not a disaster per se, but it could keep you from graduating on time



egocentric: thinking one's self to be the center of all things
prophecy: telling of the future


Metis: the Titaness of all wisdom and knowledge. She was seduced by Zeus and became pregnant with Athena. Zeus became concerned over prophecies that her second child would replace Zeus. To avoid this Zeus ate her. It is said that she is the source for Zeus wisdom and that she still advises Zeus from his belly.
Athena/Minerva:
born from Zeus' head...ouch. Zeus had a wretched headache, and so Hephaestus
cracked him in the skull with an ax and out popped Athena, fully grown,
wearing her armor. She is the goddess of wisdom, and domestic arts. She is the
patroness of heroes and associated with warfare ( heroic bravery).

AthenaBirth.jpgHere I am , world!athena_looking_fierce.jpg


10/6
vice versa : " with the order turned"
verbatim: "word for word"

versatile: easily turned or changed
verbose : using more words than necessary

The Parthenon parthenonreconstructed.jpg

The Parthenon is a temple on the Athenian Acropolis , in Greece, dedicated to the maiden goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron. Its construction began in 447 BC when the Athenian Empire was at the height of its power. It was completed in 438 BC, although decoration of the Parthenon continued until 432 BC. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthenon
parthenon-greece acroplois night.jpgparthenon3.jpg

There is a reconstuction of it in Tennesee...go figure.
Parthenon Tennesee.jpgAthena.jpgHoly Moses, that's magna!

So, what are some famous stories about Athena/Minerva? Well, the first one that comes to mind is the the story of Arachne.
Arachne was a young woman from Lydia, sometimes said to be a princess, who offended Athena, and suffered the consequences. Her story helped serve as a warning to all to take care to not offend the gods.
Arachne was gifted in the art of weaving. Not only were her finished products beautiful to look at, but the very act of her weaving was a sight to behold. Nymphs were said to abandon their frolicking to come observe Arachne practice her magic. So remarkable were her works that observers often commented that she must have been trained by the very patron goddess of weaving, Athena herself. Arachne scoffed at this. She was disgusted at being placed in an inferior place to the goddess and proclaimed that Athena herself could not do better than her.
Athena was quite perturbed at Arachne's bold claim, but she decided to give the young woman a chance to redeem herself. She came to Arachne disguised as an old woman and warned her to be careful not to offend the gods, lest she incur their wrath. But Arachne told the old woman to save her breath. She welcomed a contest with Athena, and, if she lost, would suffer whatever punishment the goddess deemed necessary.
The goddess accepted the challenge and revealed her true form. The nymphs who had come to watch Arachne's weaving shrunk back in fear, but Arachne stood her shaky ground. She had made a claim, and she was sticking to it. So the contest began, the mortal at her loom, the goddess at hers. Athena began to weave the scene of her contest with Poseidon for the city of Athens. A beautiful scene developed from the threads, showing Poseidon and the salt water spring, and Athena with an olive tree, gifts to the people who would name Athena as their patron, and their city after her. The bystanders marveled at the goddess' work.
Arachne, for her part, created a tapestry showcasing scenes of Zeus' various infidelities: Lead with the swan, Europa with the bull, Danae and the golden rain shower. So exquisite was the mortal's work that the bull seemed lifelike, swimming across the tapestry with a real girl on his shoulders. Even Athena herself was forced to admit that Arachne's work was flawless. (Whether or not Arachne was actually better than Athena is still a mystery.)
Angered at Arachne's challenge, as well as the presumptuousness of her choice of subjects, Athena tore the tapestry to pieces and destroyed the loom. Then she touched Arachne's forehead, making sure that she felt full guilt for her actions. Arachne was ashamed, but the guilt was far too deep for her poor, mortal mind. Depressed, she hanged herself.
Athena took pity on Arachne. She brought her back to life, but not as a human. By sprinkling her with the juices of aconite, Athena transformed the woman into a spider, her and her descendants to forever hang from threads and to be great weavers.
http://www.pantheon.org/articles/a/arachne.html

Arachne01.jpg
arachne spider.jpg

9/30,9/3, 9/4
ad lib.= ad libidum=" at one's pleasure

ab origine= from the origin


libido= sexual desire

aborigine= a member of the original people to live in an area ( with a capital A...Aborigines, are the indiginous people of Australia)
aboriginals.jpg

Athena had already shown particular benevolence to the land of Athens. In the days of King Cecrops a dispute had arisen between her and Poseidon for the possession of Attica, the region of Greece in which Athens is. To affirm his rights Poseidon struck the rock of the Acropolis with his trident and a salt water spring gushed forth. According to another tradition it was a horse which appeared under Poseidon's trident.
Athena, in her turn, caused an olive tree to sprout on the Acropolis, a tree which could be seen in the time of Pericles, still alive in spite of having been burned by the Persians during the invasion of Xerxes. Asked to settle the dispute the gods, on the evidence of Cecrops, pronounced in favor of Athena.
http://www.goddess-athena.org/Encyclopedia/Athena/Quarrel.htm

Poseidon/Neptune is the god of the sea.
by Paige Sellers

Poseidon is a god of many names. He is most famous as the god of the sea. The son of Cronus and Rhea, Poseidon is one of six siblings who eventually "divided the power of the world." His brothers and sisters include: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Zeus. The division of the universe involved him and his brothers, Zeus and Hades. Poseidon became ruler of the sea, Zeus ruled the sky, and Hades got the underworld. The other divinities attributed to Poseidon involve the god of earthquakes and the god of horses. The symbols associated with Poseidon include: dolphins, tridents, and three-pronged fish spears.Poseidon was relied upon by sailors for a safe voyage on the sea. Many men drowned horses in sacrifice of his honor. He lived on the ocean floor in a palace made of coral and gems, and drove a chariot pulled by horses. However, Poseidon was a very moody divinity, and his temperament could sometimes result in violence. When he was in a good mood, Poseidon created new lands in the water and a calm sea. In contrast, when he was in a bad mood, Poseidon would strike the ground with a trident and cause unruly springs and earthquakes, ship wrecks, and drownings.
Poseidon was similar to his brother Zeus in exerting his power on women and in objectifying masculinity. He had many love affairs and fathered numerous children.
http://www.pantheon.org/articles/p/poseidon.html

poseidon_horses.jpg
neptune vb.jpg 596px-Poseidon_sculpture_Copenhagen_2005.jpg
Virginia Beach Copenhagen

Medusa: as you probably already know, she was a hideous monster with snakes for hair and fangs and she turned people who gazed at her to stone. She was killed by the hero Perseus. She was not exactly what one might call charming, but she was not unsympathetic. And, she had once been a beautiful young woman, until she caught the eye of Poseidon.Medusa's Sad Story
Medusa_by_Carvaggio.jpgCaravaggio
Medusa.jpg Medusa_uffizi.jpg
MedusaFrancot.jpg

Would that this story was a relic of the past, but, sadly, it is not. Rape is still a crime for which the victim is too often blamed and punished:.
rape in afganistan

honor killing

This is the part of the lesson where we all thank the good Lord we are Americans and not subjected to the barbaric practices of other less evolved nations.

10/06
nolo contendere : I do not wish to struggle/fight; legal term , not a guilty, not a not guilty
pro bono (publico): for the public good ; another legal term, when a lawyer represents someone or takes a case for FREE

contender: a fighter with a chance of winning ...." I coulda been a contender...." Marlon Brando...contender
publication: a document of some kind that makes information generally known ( to the public)

Hera/ Juno: the sister and wife of Zeus/ Jupiterhera.jpg
This relationship preserves the hieros gamos that must be secure for the universe to thrive.
Hera/Juno is a goddess of marriage, childbirth and women in general. She has, by my count, two sons ( Hephaestus/Vulcan and Are/ Mars) and two daughters ( Hebe and Eilitheia). Her sacred month is June which was therefore considered a favorable month to get married.
The peacock was Hera's sacred animal.
Io-myth.jpgOOOh, that's too bad.

argos getting killed.jpghera and peacock.jpg


Once, Zeus, the king of the gods, fell in love with Io, a priestess of Hera. Jealously, his wife Hera asked from Zeus to bring her the young girl- and when he brought her, Hera immediately transformed Io into a cow. Afterwards, Hera gave the transformed girl to her servant Argos, an all-seing monster that had hundred eyes all over his body. His mission would be to guard Io. Zeus felt sorry for Io and tried to help her. Therefore, he called his messenger Hermes and gave him the order to kill Argos. Hermes approached the monster and started playing the flute to hypnotize him. Soon the monster fell into a deep sleep and Hermes took a stone and destroyed him. However, Hera knew all about the plan and had already removed the eyes of Argos the day before. So after Argos' death, Hera transferred all his eyes to the tail of a peacock to thank and honor her servant.


http://www.greek-gods.info/greek-gods/hera/myths/hera-peacock/

10/12/13/14

persona non grata: a not pleasing person; a pariah
e pluribus unum: one out of many; motto of the USA

ingrate( in+grata): one who is not pleased; a person who does not express adequate gratitude for that which they have or have been given
plurality: a usually large number of things — usually singular— usually + of▪ The researchers studied a plurality of approaches
OR
a number of votes that is more than the number of votes for any other candidate or party but that is not more than half of the total number of votes — usually singular ▪ Her party won by receiving a plurality of the vote.▪ He was elected with a plurality, not a majority
http://www.learnersdictionary.com/



Hera's daughter Eilithyia/Licinia:
Eilithyia was the goddess of childbirth. Her main concern was to help women on
child delivery and moderate the pain.
Eilithyia was constantly accompanied by the three Fates, especially during childbirth.

Childbirth was really risky, and the ancients did whatt they could to mitigate the risks, both medically and via superstition.
birth in the ancient world

The Fates have the subtle but awesome power of deciding a man's destiny. They
assign a man to good or evil. Their most obvious choice is choosing how long a
man lives. There are three Fates:
Clotho, the spinner, who spins the thread of life. Lachesis, the measurer, who
choses the lot in life one will have and measures off how long it is to
be. Atropos, she who cannot be turned, who at death with her shears cuts the
thread of life.
http://www.greekmythology.com/Other_Gods/The_Fates/the_fates.html


thefates_500.jpg fates.jpg
10/17 and 18

exempli gratia ( e.g.): for the sake of example
post meridiem ( p.m.) : after noon


exemplify :
: to be an instance of or serve as an example : embody <she exemplifies the qualities of a good leader>
b: to be typical of <a dish that exemplifies French cuisine

meridian
a (1): a great circle on the surface of the earth passing through the poles (2): the half of such a circle included between the poles
b: a representation of such a circle or half circle numbered for longitude on a map or globe http://www.merriam-webster.com


Hephaestus/Vulcan:vulcan.jpg
"Hephaestus, the god of fire, especially the blacksmith's fire, was the patron of all craftsmen, principally those working with metals. He was worshiped predominantly in Athens, but also in other manufacturing centres. He was the god of volcanoes. Later, the fire within them represented the smith's furnace. Hephaestus was associated with Mount Etna, which is on the island of Sicily. Known as the lame god, Hephaestus was born weak and crippled. Displeased by the sight of her son, Hera threw Hephaestus from Mount Olympus, and he fell for a whole day before landing in the sea. Nymphs rescued him and took him to Lemnos, where the people of the island cared for him. ." He is not tecnically a son of Zeus because Hera produced him PARTHENOGENETICALLY, thus he is unable to challenge his Zeus they way that Zeus challenged his father.
He is the husband of Aphrodite, and their union represents the union of the sensual and the intellectual.
Ares/Mars ares mars.jpg Ares-greek-god-war-character-design.jpgMy, what large thighs you have.
"The Greek god of war and battle and the instigator of violence, a son of Zeus and Hera. Because of his cruel and war-like nature he was despised by all the gods, even his own father disliked him. Ares could be bloody, merciless, fearful and cowardly and possessed no moral attributes. He was, however, unable to withstand the loveliness of Aphrodite, who subsequently became his consort.
Ares was of giant stature and had a loud voice, and surpassed the other gods in speed. He usually fought on foot, but could sometimes be found riding a chariot. On the battlefield Ares was accompanied by Phobos ("Fear") and Deimos ("Terror"), two lesser divinities who are sometimes given as his sons. He was furthermore attended by the goddesses Eris ("Strife") and Enyo ("Horror")."
http://www.pantheon.org
Ares is also the lover of Aphrodite...uhoh. That can't end well...and it doesn't
25_Venus_and_Mars_jpg.jpg


venus mars and hephaestus.jpg

10/19 and 20
ergo: "therefore"; Neither country was willing to sign the treaty, ergo, the war would continue.
exit/exeunt:"he goes out/they go out";stage directions
chastity:
the state of not having sex with anyone : the quality or state of being chaste
▪ The priest took a vow of chastity. [=made a promise never to have sex]
nymph:
any of the minor divinities of nature in classical mythology represented as beautiful maidens dwelling in the mountains, forests, trees, and waters

Artemis/Diana: goddess of the hunt and animals; moon goddess; a fertility goddess; a virginArtemis.jpg
She was also a goddess of childbirth, and the protectress of the girl child up to the age of marriage. Her twin brother Apollo was similarly the protector of the boy child. Together the two gods were also bringers of sudden death and disease--Artemis targetted women and girls, and Apollo men and boys

Artemis/Diana is really, really serious about protecting her chastity and modesty. As a sad soul named Actaeon found out the hard way.
He was a hunter, and one day he was out hunting with his dogs when he came upon by chance Artemis/Diana bathing. He saw her naked, which enraged her. So, she turned him into a deer and allowed his dogs to rip him apart. That's pretty onery...

"During a hunt, he left the party and wandered alone through the forest when he suddenly came upon a clearing. There he saw the goddess Artemis bathing in a large pool, surrounded by her nymphs. When they noticed the hunter they flew themselves before the goddess, but he had already seen her splendid nakedness. Angered, she turned him into a stag for she refused to let any mortal say that he had seen Artemis naked.

Actaeon moved away from the clearing feeling different and confused, not yet realizing what had happened to him. The truth hit him when he saw his own reflection in a river and he knew he was no longer human. In the distance he heard the sound of his own hounds. A brief moment of joy quickly turned into fear when he realized they were hunting him now, not recognizing their former master. He fled but was eventually overrun and torn to pieces."
How cruel is that? Diana allowed him to keep his human mind, so that he was aware of what was happening.
http://www.pantheon.org/articles/a/actaeon.html
ActaeonTitian.gifUh oh, we have a visitor.

Actaeon_Caserta.jpgCaserta

Down, boy!

palace of Caserta


10/24 and 10/26

ad valorem: "according to the value"; and ad valorem tax ; imposed at a rate percent of value <ad valorem tax on goods>;
http://www.merriam-webster.com

agnus Dei: "lamb of God"; agnus dei.jpg
designation of Jesus Christ in Christian liturgical usage. It is based on the saying of John the Baptist: “Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!” (John 1:29). In the Roman Catholic liturgy the Agnus Dei is employed in the following text: “Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us! Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us! Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world, grant us peace!” It comes between the Lord’s Prayer and the Communion and sounds the themes of sacrifice and of adoration. Thus, it unites the sacrifice of the liturgy to the sacrifice of Christ on the Cross as the Lamb of God and calls to mind the sacrifice of the lamb in the cultus of the Old Testament. Both Anglican and Lutheran liturgies have retained the Agnus Dei in their eucharistic rites. It also appears as part of many of the litanies.
The name is also applied to figures of Christ as the Lamb of God, especially to waxen disks impressed with this figure and blessed by the pope.
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/9366/Agnus-Dei

agnus dei chant



valor: strength of mind or spirit that enables a person to encounter danger with firmness : personal bravery; the value of your character
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/valor

deity: a god


back to our Olympian friends:

Diana/Artemis had a twin brother, Apollo aka Apollo who was the god of music, medicine and prophecy. He is also a sun god.As his sister protects young girls, he protects young boys.He was depicted as a handsome, beardless youth with long hair and various attributes including:--a wreath and branch of laurel; bow and quiver; raven; and lyre.
apollo1.jpg ApolloBelvedere-l.jpgapollo.jpg

apollo theater.jpgNYC

Slaying of the Python:

PYTHON was a monstrous serpentpython.jpg
which Gaia (Mother Earth) appointed to
guard the oracle at Delphi. The beast was sometimes said to have been born from
the rotting slime left behind after the great flood . When Apollo laid claim to the shrine, he slew
the dragon with his arrows. The oracle and festival of the god were then named
Pytho and Pythian from the rotting (pythô) corpse of the beast. According to
some, Apollo slew the monster to avenge his mother Leto, who had been pursued relentlessly by
the dragon during her long pregnancy.

apollo_python_goltzius.jpg

10/ 26 and 10/27
post mortem: after death; Because of the lack of blood, the coroner determined the wounds had been received post mortem.

rigor mortis: the stiffness of death



mortify:to subject to severe and vexing embarrassment( so that they wish they were dead)
: to subdue or deaden (as the body or bodily appetites) especially by abstinence or self-inflicted pain or discomfort ( mortification)

rigorous: very strict and demanding
▪rigorous enforcement of the rules ▪rigorous training ▪ a rigorous course of study
ronaldo.jpgApolloesque...a word I just made up, but wildly appropo, don't you think?
So the other day , when we were talking about Apollo, I was trying to get across to y'all the idea of idealized male beauty that is not effeminate but is not super buff hard headed male virility either...and sometimes a picture is worth 1000 words...and, let's face it, any reason at all to gape at Crisitiano Renaldo is welcome...get a load of the lady in the corner!

Apollo's role as a god of prophecy was gravissimus( very important). The most important shrine devoted to him in this role was the Temple at Delphi in Greece which was a sacred place visited by millions of people who wanted to seek the future and commune with the god. It is said that this is the site where he slew the Python.

The Temple at Delphi



delphi_tholos_edited.jpg
this photo is courtesy the University of Alabama...roll tide!
Delphi2.jpg
So, what is this prophecy business? It's a strange and complicated thing. Our knowledge of them exactly is a little scant, not because they were secret, but because it was so common, everyone simply assumed everyone knew the rituals and proceedures involved, so, no one wrote them down, or if they did, it is lost.
This is what we do know:

On the seventh day of every month ( except three months in the winter) the oracle was open. An inquirer of the oracle had to undergo certain rituals to prepare:
1. offer an expensive cake outside the temple
2. once inside, offer a goat or sheep for sacrifice which needed to be trembling
3. take his seat in the innermost sanctuary and await the Sybil ( at Delphi aka the Pythia); the priestess of Apollo.

She sat on a tripod topped with a bowl where, according to some sources, she would inhale vaporous outpourings from a cave or possible a fire. A priest would ask her a question and she would rant and rave, and then the priests would interpret these as an answer to the inquiry. It was said to have been a bit on the terrifying side and not a little weird.

the Pythia/Sybil pythia.jpgpythia/sybil

Pythia 2.jpg