Nova Scripta

1.
ad nauseum : to the point of sickness
My sister keeps going on about her vacation ad nauseam. We get it: it was nice. Enough already!


BRUTUM FULMEN: senseless thunder;an empty threat

nausea: stomach distress with distaste for food and an urge to vomit ; extreme disgust
fulminate: to "thunder" in vehement protest


Zeus mated with Mnemosyne, the Titan goddess of memory, and the inventress of language and words. They had the nine Muses, the patronesses of the arts.



THE MOUSAI (Muses) were the goddesses of music, song and dance, and the source

of inspiration to poets. They were also goddesses of knowledge, who remembered all things that had come to pass. Later the Mousai were assigned specific

artistic spheres: Kalliope( Calliope), epic poetry; Kleio(Clio), history; Ourania(Urania), astronomy;

Thalia, comedy; Melpomene, tragedy; Polyhymnia, religious hymns; Erato, erotic poetry; Euterpe, lyric poetry; and Terpsikhore, choral song and dance.



http://www.theoi.com/Ouranios/Mousai.html

muses.jpgThis is the ruins of Roman temple to Apollo in Leptis Magna, in modern day Libya, which was part of the Roman Empire. It was a beautiful place, and probably still is, but no one in their right mind would visit there now, unless you enjoy things like burning people in effigy and storming embassies. It is kind of sad when you think about it.

muses2.jpgHere are the muses with Apollo, who is a god of music as well.

MusesApollo.jpgHere they are again, dancing around.



modern-muse-arizona-muse_article_new.jpg





muse to sell perfume



muse in fashion

So who are they? Zeus(Jupiter), Hera (Juno), Ares(Mars), Artemis( Diana), Athena(Minerva), Demeter(Ceres), Dionysus(Bacchus), Hephaestus(Vulcan), Hermes(Mercury), Poseidon(Neptune), Hestia(Vesta),and Hades(Pluto)


2.
alter ego: a second self
Dr. Jekyl and Mr. Hyde; Superman and Clarke Kent; Miley Cyrus and Hannah Montana
superman.jpg

per se: by itself;
Failing the class is not a disaster per se, but it could keep you from graduating on time



egocentric: thinking one's self to be the center of all things
alternative: another choice


The Great Flood Myth ( hey...that sounds really really familiar)
Biblical and Greek flood stories are similar. In the Biblical flood, the world was filled with violence and the people were corrupt.In the ancient Greek/Roman flood, the world was filled with violence and the people were corrupt.

Genesis 6:11-13 ( biblegateway.com)

Now the earth was corrupt in God's sight and was full of violence. God saw how corrupt the earth had become, for all the people on earth had corrupted their ways. So God said to Noah, "I am going to put an end to all people, for the earth is filled with violence because of them. I am surely going to destroy both them and the earth."


Ovid's Metamorphoses

Bk I:127-150

The harsh iron age was last. Immediately every kind of wickedness erupted into this age of baser natures: truth, shame and honour vanished; in their place were fraud, deceit, and trickery, violence and pernicious desires. They set sails to the wind, though as yet the seamen had poor knowledge of their use, and the ships’ keels that once were trees standing amongst high mountains, now leaped through uncharted waves. The land that was once common to all, as the light of the sun is, and the air, was marked out, to its furthest boundaries, by wary surveyors. Not only did they demand the crops and the food the rich soil owed them, but they entered the bowels of the earth, and excavating brought up the wealth it had concealed in shade, wealth that incites men to crime. And now harmful iron appeared, and gold more harmful than iron. War came, whose struggles employ both, waving clashing arms with bloodstained hands. They lived on plunder: friend was not safe with friend, relative with relative, kindness was rare between brothers. Husbands longed for the death of their wives, wives for the death of their husbands. Murderous stepmothers mixed deadly aconite, and sons inquired into their father’s years before their time. Piety was dead, and the virgin, Astrea, last of all the immortals to depart, herself abandoned the blood-drenched earth.

http://ovid.lib.virginia.edu/trans/Metamorph.htm#488381099

So, Zeus tests humanity:
It happened that Zeus, the chief god of the Greeks, was angry. He had heard that the impious sons of Lycaon had sacrificed a boy to him. He visited them, disguised as a poor traveler, to check on the veracity of these reports. The sons greeted him warmly and served him a loathsome banquet in which they mixed the flesh of one of the brothers. Enraged, Zeus turned them into wolves. And, he decides to destroy the earth and its inhabitants.

Deucalion and Pyrrha

Deucalion was the son of the last Titan (god), Prometheus. According to Hesiod, Prometheus and the god Zeus were in conflict. Prometheus was the one who created man. When mankind became mean, greedy, and disobedient to the gods, Zeus decided to destroy them.
Deucalion, son of Prometheus, in an effort to control the animal instincts of mankind asked Zeus to be merciful. Yet Zeus had already decided to destroy the corrupted generation of mankind. Only Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha were saved—both of whom were considered of the ranks of the gods, the most righteous amongst men —when Deucalion took advice from his father, Prometheus, and constructed an ark. He and his wife used the ark to escape the flood sent by Zeus. The rain and thunders lasted for nine days and nine nights, and the land was flooded, drowning the generation of men except for a few who were saved by running on the top of the mountains. Once the flood was over, Deucalion and Pyrrha landed on a mount (some suggest that it was mount Parnasus) and offered sacrifices to Zeus. The myth says that once they saw the extent of the destruction, their grief was so great that the tears kept pouring from their eyes.

Their wish was to create a new mankind. Deucalion and Pyrrha prayed in many different sanctuaries for a new mankind. It was at the temple of the goddess Themis that Zeus listened to their petitions and their request was granted. The goddess told them that for a new mankind to be created, Deucalion and Pyrrha had to cover their eyes and throw the ‘bones of their mother’ behind them. What exactly the ‘bones of their mother meant’ is not clear, however the most common interpretation is that it meant stones from the earth. Each stone that Deucalion threw became a man, and each stone Pyrrha threw became a woman. This is how the new human kind—that we belong to—was created.


deucalion and Pyrrha.jpg250px-Virgil_Solis_-_Deucalion_Pyrrha.jpg


Deucalion_and_Pyrrha,_1636 (1).jpg

analysis of Biblical and Greek Flood stories

3.
vice versa : " with the order turned"
verbatim: "word for word"

versatile: easily turned or changed
verbose : using more words than necessary


Metis: the Titaness of all wisdom and knowledge. She was seduced by Zeus and became pregnant with Athena. Zeus became concerned over prophecies that her second child would replace Zeus. To avoid this Zeus ate her. It is said that she is the source for Zeus wisdom and that she still advises Zeus from his belly.
Athena/Minerva:born from Zeus' head...ouch. Zeus had a wretched headache, and so Hephaestus cracked him in the skull with an ax and out popped Athena, fully grown,wearing her armor. She is the goddess of wisdom, and domestic arts. She is the patroness of heroes and associated with warfare ( heroic bravery).

AthenaBirth.jpgHere I am , world!athena_looking_fierce.jpgathena_birth.gif



4.
ad lib.= ad libidum=" at one's pleasure

ab origine= from the origin


libido= sexual desire

aborigine= a member of the original people to live in an area ( with a capital A...Aborigines, are the indiginous people of Australia)

The Parthenon parthenonreconstructed.jpg

The Parthenon is a temple on the Athenian Acropolis , in Greece, dedicated to the maiden goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron. Its construction began in 447 BC when the Athenian Empire was at the height of its power. It was completed in 438 BC, although decoration of the Parthenon continued until 432 BC. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthenon
parthenon-greece acroplois night.jpgparthenon3.jpg

There is a reconstuction of it in Tennesee...go figure.
Parthenon Tennesee.jpgAthena.jpgHoly Moses, that's magna!

So, what are some famous stories about Athena/Minerva? Well, the first one that comes to mind is the the story of Arachne.
Arachne was a young woman from Lydia, sometimes said to be a princess, who offended Athena, and suffered the consequences. Her story helped serve as a warning to all to take care to not offend the gods.
Arachne was gifted in the art of weaving. Not only were her finished products beautiful to look at, but the very act of her weaving was a sight to behold. Nymphs were said to abandon their frolicking to come observe Arachne practice her magic. So remarkable were her works that observers often commented that she must have been trained by the very patron goddess of weaving, Athena herself. Arachne scoffed at this. She was disgusted at being placed in an inferior place to the goddess and proclaimed that Athena herself could not do better than her.
Athena was quite perturbed at Arachne's bold claim, but she decided to give the young woman a chance to redeem herself. She came to Arachne disguised as an old woman and warned her to be careful not to offend the gods, lest she incur their wrath. But Arachne told the old woman to save her breath. She welcomed a contest with Athena, and, if she lost, would suffer whatever punishment the goddess deemed necessary.
The goddess accepted the challenge and revealed her true form. The nymphs who had come to watch Arachne's weaving shrunk back in fear, but Arachne stood her shaky ground. She had made a claim, and she was sticking to it. So the contest began, the mortal at her loom, the goddess at hers. Athena began to weave the scene of her contest with Poseidon for the city of Athens. A beautiful scene developed from the threads, showing Poseidon and the salt water spring, and Athena with an olive tree, gifts to the people who would name Athena as their patron, and their city after her. The bystanders marveled at the goddess' work.
Arachne, for her part, created a tapestry showcasing scenes of Zeus' various infidelities: Lead with the swan, Europa with the bull, Danae and the golden rain shower. So exquisite was the mortal's work that the bull seemed lifelike, swimming across the tapestry with a real girl on his shoulders. Even Athena herself was forced to admit that Arachne's work was flawless. (Whether or not Arachne was actually better than Athena is still a mystery.)
Angered at Arachne's challenge, as well as the presumptuousness of her choice of subjects, Athena tore the tapestry to pieces and destroyed the loom. Then she touched Arachne's forehead, making sure that she felt full guilt for her actions. Arachne was ashamed, but the guilt was far too deep for her poor, mortal mind. Depressed, she hanged herself.
Athena took pity on Arachne. She brought her back to life, but not as a human. By sprinkling her with the juices of aconite, Athena transformed the woman into a spider, her and her descendants to forever hang from threads and to be great weavers.
http://www.pantheon.org/articles/a/arachne.html

Arachne01.jpg
arachne spider.jpg


5.
nolo contendere : I do not wish to struggle/fight; legal term , not a guilty, not a not guilty
pro bono (publico): for the public good ; another legal term, when a lawyer represents someone or takes a case for FREE

contender: a fighter with a chance of winning ...." I coulda been a contender...." Marlon Brando...contender
publication: a document of some kind that makes information generally known ( to the public)


Athena had already shown particular benevolence to the land of Athens. In the days of King Cecrops a dispute had arisen between her and Poseidon for the possession of Attica, the region of Greece in which Athens is. To affirm his rights Poseidon struck the rock of the Acropolis with his trident and a salt water spring gushed forth. According to another tradition it was a horse which appeared under Poseidon's trident.
Athena, in her turn, caused an olive tree to sprout on the Acropolis, a tree which could be seen in the time of Pericles, still alive in spite of having been burned by the Persians during the invasion of Xerxes. Asked to settle the dispute the gods, on the evidence of Cecrops, pronounced in favor of Athena.
http://www.goddess-athena.org/Encyclopedia/Athena/Quarrel.htm

Poseidon/Neptune is the god of the sea.
by Paige Sellers

Poseidon is a god of many names. He is most famous as the god of the sea. The son of Cronus and Rhea, Poseidon is one of six siblings who eventually "divided the power of the world." His brothers and sisters include: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Zeus. The division of the universe involved him and his brothers, Zeus and Hades. Poseidon became ruler of the sea, Zeus ruled the sky, and Hades got the underworld. The other divinities attributed to Poseidon involve the god of earthquakes and the god of horses. The symbols associated with Poseidon include: dolphins, tridents, and three-pronged fish spears.Poseidon was relied upon by sailors for a safe voyage on the sea. Many men drowned horses in sacrifice of his honor. He lived on the ocean floor in a palace made of coral and gems, and drove a chariot pulled by horses. However, Poseidon was a very moody divinity, and his temperament could sometimes result in violence. When he was in a good mood, Poseidon created new lands in the water and a calm sea. In contrast, when he was in a bad mood, Poseidon would strike the ground with a trident and cause unruly springs and earthquakes, ship wrecks, and drownings.
Poseidon was similar to his brother Zeus in exerting his power on women and in objectifying masculinity. He had many love affairs and fathered numerous children.
http://www.pantheon.org/articles/p/poseidon.html

poseidon_horses.jpg
neptune vb.jpg 596px-Poseidon_sculpture_Copenhagen_2005.jpg
Virginia Beach Copenhagen

Medusa: as you probably already know, she was a hideous monster with snakes for hair and fangs and she turned people who gazed at her to stone. She was killed by the hero Perseus. She was not exactly what one might call charming, but she was not unsympathetic. And, she had once been a beautiful young woman, until she caught the eye of Poseidon.Medusa's Sad Story
Medusa_by_Carvaggio.jpgCaravaggio
Medusa.jpg Medusa_uffizi.jpg
MedusaFrancot.jpg

Would that this story was a relic of the past, but, sadly, it is not. Rape is still a crime for which the victim is too often blamed and punished:.
rape in afganistan

honor killing

This is the part of the lesson where we all thank the good Lord we are Americans and not subjected to the barbaric practices of other less evolved nations.

6.



persona non grata: a not pleasing person; a pariah

e pluribus unum: one out of many; motto of the USA



ingrate( in+grata): one who is not pleased; a person who does not express adequate gratitude for that which they have or have been given

plurality: a usually large number of things — usually singular— usually + of▪ The researchers studied a plurality of approaches

OR

a number of votes that is more than the number of votes for any other candidate or party but that is not more than half of the total number of votes — usually singular ▪ Her party won by receiving a plurality of the vote.▪ He was elected with a plurality, not a majority



Hera/ Juno: the sister and wife of Zeus/ Jupiterhera.jpg
This relationship preserves the hieros gamos that must be secure for the universe to thrive.
Hera/Juno is a goddess of marriage, childbirth and women in general. She has, by my count, two sons ( Hephaestus/Vulcan and Are/ Mars) and two daughters ( Hebe and Eilitheia). Her sacred month is June which was therefore considered a favorable month to get married.
The peacock was Hera's sacred animal.
Io-myth.jpgOOOh, that's too bad.

argos getting killed.jpghera and peacock.jpg


Once, Zeus, the king of the gods, fell in love with Io, a priestess of Hera.
IO was an Argive princess who was loved by the god Zeus. When Hera suddenly interrupted their tryst, Zeus transformed the maiden into a white heifer. However the goddess was not so easily fooled and requested the animal as a gift. She then appointed the hundred-eyed giant Argos Panoptes as its guard. Zeus sent Hermes to slay the Argos but Hera soon retaliated by inflicting the heifer-shaped Io with a gadfly. The stinging insect drove the cow-girl mad forcing her to wander miles across the expanses of Europe and Asia to eventually reach Aigyptos (Egypt). Once there Zeus restored her form with a touch of the hand and she gave birth to their son Epaphos.
.


http://www.greek-gods.info/greek-gods/hera/myths/hera-peacock/

7.
exempli gratia ( e.g.): for the sake of example

Ipso facto: “by the fact itself” this commonly used and misused term is denotes when something is true by its very nature. For example, if you don’t feed your dog you are ipso facto a bad owner.

exemplify :

a.: to be an instance of or serve as an example : embody <she exemplifies the qualities of a good leader>

b: to be typical of <a dish that exemplifies French cuisine
factory: a place where things are made




Hera's daughter Eilithyia/Licinia:
Eilithyia was the goddess of childbirth. Her main concern was to help women on
child delivery and moderate the pain.
Eilithyia was constantly accompanied by the three Fates, especially during childbirth.

Childbirth was really risky, and the ancients did whatt they could to mitigate the risks, both medically and via superstition.
birth in the ancient world

The Fates have the subtle but awesome power of deciding a man's destiny. They assign a man to good or evil. Their most obvious choice is choosing how long a man lives. There are three Fates:
Clotho, the spinner, who spins the thread of life. Lachesis, the measurer, who
choses the lot in life one will have and measures off how long it is to
be. Atropos, she who cannot be turned, who at death with her shears cuts the
thread of life.
http://www.greekmythology.com/Other_Gods/The_Fates/the_fates.html


thefates_500.jpg fates.jpg
8.

ergo: "therefore"; Neither country was willing to sign the treaty, ergo, the war would continue.

exit/exeunt:"he goes out/they go out";stage directions

exit: a place where one can go out
bloodlust: a desire to kil



Hephaestus/Vulcan:vulcan.jpg
"Hephaestus, the god of fire, especially the blacksmith's fire, was the patron of all craftsmen, principally those working with metals. He was worshiped predominantly in Athens, but also in other manufacturing centres. He was the god of volcanoes. Later, the fire within them represented the smith's furnace. Hephaestus was associated with Mount Etna, which is on the island of Sicily. Known as the lame god, Hephaestus was born weak and crippled. Displeased by the sight of her son, Hera threw Hephaestus from Mount Olympus, and he fell for a whole day before landing in the sea. Nymphs rescued him and took him to Lemnos, where the people of the island cared for him. ." He is not tecnically a son of Zeus because Hera produced him PARTHENOGENETICALLY, thus he is unable to challenge his Zeus they way that Zeus challenged his father.
He is the husband of Aphrodite, and their union represents the union of the sensual and the intellectual.
Ares/Mars ares mars.jpg Ares-greek-god-war-character-design.jpgMy, what large thighs you have.
"The Greek god of war and battle and the instigator of violence, a son of Zeus and Hera. Because of his cruel and war-like nature he was despised by all the gods, even his own father disliked him. Ares could be bloody, merciless, fearful and cowardly and possessed no moral attributes. He was, however, unable to withstand the loveliness of Aphrodite, who subsequently became his consort.
Ares was of giant stature and had a loud voice, and surpassed the other gods in speed. He usually fought on foot, but could sometimes be found riding a chariot. On the battlefield Ares was accompanied by Phobos ("Fear") and Deimos ("Terror"), two lesser divinities who are sometimes given as his sons. He was furthermore attended by the goddesses Eris ("Strife") and Enyo ("Horror")."
http://www.pantheon.org
Ares is also the lover of Aphrodite...uhoh. That can't end well...and it doesn't
25_Venus_and_Mars_jpg.jpg


venus mars and hephaestus.jpg

9.



ad valorem: "according to the value"; and ad valorem tax ; imposed at a rate percent of value <ad valorem tax on goods>;

http://www.merriam-webster.com



agnus Dei: "lamb of God"; agnus dei.jpg

designation of Jesus Christ in Christian liturgical usage. It is based on the saying of John the Baptist: “Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!” (John 1:29). In the Roman Catholic liturgy the Agnus Dei is employed in the following text: “Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us! Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us! Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world, grant us peace!” It comes between the Lord’s Prayer and the Communion and sounds the themes of sacrifice and of adoration. Thus, it unites the sacrifice of the liturgy to the sacrifice of Christ on the Cross as the Lamb of God and calls to mind the sacrifice of the lamb in the cultus of the Old Testament. Both Anglican and Lutheran liturgies have retained the Agnus Dei in their eucharistic rites. It also appears as part of many of the litanies.

The name is also applied to figures of Christ as the Lamb of God, especially to waxen disks impressed with this figure and blessed by the pope.

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/9366/Agnus-Dei



agnus dei chant







valor: strength of mind or spirit that enables a person to encounter danger with firmness : personal bravery; the value of your character

http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/valor

deity: a god


Artemis/Diana: goddess of the hunt and animals; moon goddess; a fertility goddess; a virginArtemis.jpg
She was also a goddess of childbirth, and the protectress of the girl child up to the age of marriage. Her twin brother Apollo was similarly the protector of the boy child. Together the two gods were also bringers of sudden death and disease--Artemis targetted women and girls, and Apollo men and boys

Artemis/Diana is really, really serious about protecting her chastity and modesty. As a sad soul named Actaeon found out the hard way.
He was a hunter, and one day he was out hunting with his dogs when he came upon by chance Artemis/Diana bathing. He saw her naked, which enraged her. So, she turned him into a deer and allowed his dogs to rip him apart. That's pretty onery...

"During a hunt, he left the party and wandered alone through the forest when he suddenly came upon a clearing. There he saw the goddess Artemis bathing in a large pool, surrounded by her nymphs. When they noticed the hunter they flew themselves before the goddess, but he had already seen her splendid nakedness. Angered, she turned him into a stag for she refused to let any mortal say that he had seen Artemis naked.

Actaeon moved away from the clearing feeling different and confused, not yet realizing what had happened to him. The truth hit him when he saw his own reflection in a river and he knew he was no longer human. In the distance he heard the sound of his own hounds. A brief moment of joy quickly turned into fear when he realized they were hunting him now, not recognizing their former master. He fled but was eventually overrun and torn to pieces."
How cruel is that? Diana allowed him to keep his human mind, so that he was aware of what was happening.
http://www.pantheon.org/articles/a/actaeon.html
ActaeonTitian.gifUh oh, we have a visitor.

Actaeon_Caserta.jpgCaserta

Down, boy!

palace of Caserta



10.
post mortem: after death; Because of the lack of blood, the coroner determined the wounds had been received post mortem.

rigor mortis: the stiffness of death



mortify:to subject to severe and vexing embarrassment( so that they wish they were dead)
: to subdue or deaden (as the body or bodily appetites) especially by abstinence or self-inflicted pain or discomfort ( mortification)

rigorous: very strict and demanding
▪rigorous enforcement of the rules ▪rigorous training ▪ a rigorous course of study

Diana/Artemis had a twin brother, Apollo aka Apollo who was the god of music, medicine and prophecy. He is also a sun god.As his sister protects young girls, he protects young boys.He was depicted as a handsome, beardless youth with long hair and various attributes including:--a wreath and branch of laurel; bow and quiver; raven; and lyre.
apollo1.jpg ApolloBelvedere-l.jpgapollo.jpg

apollo theater.jpgNYC

Slaying of the Python:

PYTHON was a monstrous serpentpython.jpg
which Gaia (Mother Earth) appointed to
guard the oracle at Delphi. The beast was sometimes said to have been born from
the rotting slime left behind after the great flood . When Apollo laid claim to the shrine, he slew
the dragon with his arrows. The oracle and festival of the god were then named
Pytho and Pythian from the rotting (pythô) corpse of the beast. According to
some, Apollo slew the monster to avenge his mother Leto, who had been pursued relentlessly by
the dragon during her long pregnancy.

apollo_python_goltzius.jpg